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what exactly is ADHD?

What exactly is ADD/ADHD?

ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a mental health problem that causes excessive impulsivity and hyperactivity. People with ADHD may also have difficulty concentrating on a single task or remaining motionless for long periods of time.

Many people suffer inattention and energy fluctuations. This occurs more frequently and to a greater extent in people with ADHD than in people without the disorder. It has the potential to have a substantial impact on their schooling, employment, and personal lives.

ADHD can affect both adults and children. The American Psychiatric Association recognizes it as a diagnosis (APA). Learn about the different types of ADHD and how it affects both children and adults.

Symptoms of ADHD

ADHD is linked to a wide range of behaviors. The following are a few of the more common ones:

having difficulty concentrating or focusing on tasks

forgetfulness when it comes to finishing assignments

being prone to distraction

having a hard time staying still

interfering with other people's conversations

Distinct parts of ADHD can have different signs and symptoms, such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, or difficulties focusing.

A person who is prone to impulsivity and hyperactivity may:

find it difficult to sit still or stay sat for long periods of time, such as in class

have a hard time playing or doing activities quietly

excessive talking

find it difficult to wait for their turn

When others are conversing, playing, or performing a task, don't interrupt them.

Someone who is having trouble concentrating might:

When studying or working, make numerous blunders or overlook details.

find it difficult to stay focused while listening, reading, or conversing

having a hard time keeping track of their daily tasks

goods are regularly misplaced

be easily distracted by minor events in their environment

Some or all of these symptoms may be present if you or your child has ADHD. Depending on the type of ADHD you have, the symptoms you experience will vary. Look at a list of common ADHD symptoms in kids.

ADHD has several different types.

The American Psychological Association (APA) has divided ADHD into three forms to make diagnosis more consistent. These personalities are primarily inattentive, primarily hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of the two.

The majority of the time, I'm not paying attention.

People with this type of ADHD have a lot of trouble focusing, finishing work, and following instructions, as the name implies.

Many children with inattentive ADHD, according to experts, may not receive a correct diagnosis because they do not disrupt the classroom. According to research, this is more likely among girls with ADHD.

The hyperactive-impulsive personality type is the most common.

This kind of ADHD is characterized by hyperactive and impulsive conduct. This can include things like:


interfering with other people's conversations

unable to wait for their turn

Although inattention is less of an issue with this form of ADHD, people with mainly hyperactive-impulsive ADHD may still struggle to concentrate on tasks.

Type that is a mix of hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive.

This is the most frequent kind of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this kind of ADHD, people experience both inattentive and hyperactive symptoms. These include an inability to focus, a proclivity for impulsivity, and higher-than-average levels of activity and energy.

How you or your child is treated will depend on the type of ADHD you or your child has. Because your type can change over time, your therapy may as well. Find out more about the three different forms of ADHD.

What are the causes of ADHD?

Despite the prevalence of ADHD, doctors and academics are still baffled as to what causes it. It's thought to have neurological roots. Genetics could also be a factor.

According to ResearchTrusted Source, dopamine deficiency is a component in ADHD. Dopamine is a brain molecule that aids in the transmission of signals from one nerve to another. It aids in the elicitation of emotional responses and motions.

Other studies

According to Trusted Source, the brain has a structural difference. According to the findings, those with ADHD had a lower gray matter volume. The gray matter of the brain is made up of sections that help with:



making a decision

control of the muscles

Potential causes of ADHD, including as smoking during pregnancy, are still being investigated by researchers. Learn more about ADHD's possible causes and risk factors.

ADHD testing and diagnosis

There is no single test that can determine whether you or your child suffers from ADHD. Although a novel test for diagnosing adult ADHD was featured in a 2017 report by Trusted Source, many practitioners believe that an ADHD diagnosis cannot be determined only on a single test.

A doctor will evaluate any symptoms you or your child has had in the preceding 6 months in order to determine a diagnosis.

Your doctor will most likely acquire information from teachers or family members and review symptoms using checklists and rating scales. They'll also do a physical examination to rule out any other health issues. Learn more about the capabilities and limitations of ADHD rating systems.

If you or your child thinks they might have ADHD, see a doctor about getting tested. You can also speak with your child's school counselor. Schools evaluate students on a regular basis for issues that may be harming their academic achievement

Provide your doctor or counselor with notes and observations about your or your child's conduct for the assessment.

They may recommend you or your child to an ADHD specialist if they suspect ADHD. They might also recommend seeing a psychiatrist or neurologist, depending on the diagnosis.

Treatment for ADHD

Behavioral therapy, medication, or a combination of the two are commonly used to treat ADHD.

Psychotherapy, sometimes known as talk therapy, is one type of therapy. You or your child will discuss how ADHD impacts your life and how to manage it in talk therapy.Behavioral therapy is another sort of therapy. This therapy can assist you or your child in learning to control and monitor their actions.

When you have ADHD, medication can be really beneficial. ADHD drugs work by altering brain chemistry, allowing you to better control your urges and actions.

Learn more about treatment choices and behavioral treatments that can help to alleviate the symptoms of ADHD.

Medication for ADHD

Stimulants and nonstimulants are the two primary categories of drugs used to treat ADHD.

The most often prescribed ADHD drugs are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. These medications act by boosting the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.

Methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamine-based stimulants are examples of these medicines (Adderall).

If stimulants aren't working or are causing you or your child problems, your doctor may recommend a nonstimulant drug. Certain nonstimulant drugs act by raising norepinephrine levels in the brain.

Some antidepressants, such as bupropion, and atomoxetine (Strattera) are among these drugs (Wellbutrin).

ADHD drugs can offer a variety of advantages as well as drawbacks. Learn more about the various drug alternatives available to adults with ADHD.

ADHD natural treatments

Several methods have been recommended to help relieve ADHD symptoms in addition to — or instead of — medication.

Making lifestyle adjustments, for starters, may help you or your child manage ADHD symptoms. The following are recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source:

consuming a nutritious and well-balanced diet

completing at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity

getting enough sleep

reducing daily screen time (phones, laptops, and television)

YogaTrusted Source, tai chiTrusted Source, and spending time outdoorsTrusted Source have also been proven to help calm overactive minds and may alleviate ADHD symptoms in studies.

Another way is to practice mindfulness meditation. According to 2015Trusted Source research, meditation may help patients with ADHD improve their focus.

Aside from avoiding some allergens and food additives, avoiding certain allergens and food additives may also assist to alleviate ADHD symptoms. Find out more about these and other non-drug treatments for ADHD.

ADD vs. ADHD: What's the Difference?

You may have come across the terms "ADD" and "ADHD" and wondered what they meant.

Attention deficit disorder, or ADD, is a term that has become obsolete. It was previously used to characterize people who had attention issues but were not hyperactive. In place of ADD, a kind of ADHD known as "predominantly inattentive" is currently utilized.

The current umbrella term for the ailment is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). When the American Psychological Association (APA) published the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)" in May 2013, the name ADHD became official.

This is the guidebook that clinicians consult when making mental health diagnosis. Learn how to recognize the differences between ADD and ADHD.

Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

As adults, more than 60% of children with ADHD still have symptoms. Many people's hyperactive symptoms fade as they become older, although inattention and impulsivity may persist.

Treatment, however, is critical. Adults with untreated ADHD can have a negative impact on many parts of their lives. Problems with time management, forgetfulness, and irritability can occur at work, at home, and in all types of relationships.

Learn more about the signs and symptoms of adult ADHD, as well as how they may affect your life.

Children with ADHD

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, roughly 8.8% of Americans aged 3 to 17 have been diagnosed with ADHD at some point in their lives. There are 11.7 percent of males and 5.7 percent of females in this group.

ADHD is frequently linked to academic difficulties in youngsters. In a structured classroom setting, children with ADHD frequently struggle.

Boys are more than twice as likely as girls to be diagnosed with ADHD, according to research. This could be due to the fact that boys are more likely to develop hyperactive symptoms. Although some girls with ADHD exhibit characteristic hyperactive signs, the majority do not.

Girls with ADHD are likely to:

daydream on a regular basis

rather of being hyperactive, be hyper-talkative

Because many signs of ADHD might be mistaken for ordinary juvenile behaviors, it's difficult to tell what's ADHD-related and what isn't. Find out more about how to spot ADHD in toddlers.

Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a disability?

Despite the fact that ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition, it is not a learning handicap. However, ADHD symptoms might make learning more difficult. It's also probable that some people with ADHD also have learning impairments.

Teachers can sketch out unique recommendations for a student with ADHD to help alleviate any impact on learning for children. Allowing extra time for assignments and tests, or developing a personal reward system, are examples of this.

ADHD, while not strictly a disability, can have long-term consequences. Find out more about the effects of ADHD on adults and children, as well as resources that can help.

Conditions that coexist

Other mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety, are common in people with ADHD. Some of these issues arise as a result of the difficulties of living with ADHD.


It can be difficult for people with ADHD to keep up with daily tasks, maintain relationships, and so forth. Anxiety is a possibility as a result of this.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, people with ADHD are also more likely to have anxiety disorders than people without ADHD.

Anxiety disorders include the following:

When you have separation anxiety, you are terrified of being apart from your loved ones.

You may be terrified of going to school or other locations where people socialize if you have social anxiety.

When you're worried of awful things happening, the future, and so on, you have generalized anxiety.


If you or your child suffers from ADHD, you're more prone to suffer from depression. According to one study, nearly 50% of teenagers with ADHD had significant depression or anxiety condition, compared to only 35% of those without the disorder. According to studies, up to 53.3 percent of persons with ADHD may also suffer from depression.This may seem like an unfair double whammy, but both conditions have treatments available. In reality, many of the therapies are similar. Both disorders can be treated with talk therapy. Antidepressants like bupropion, for example, can occasionally aid with ADHD symptoms.

Of course, having ADHD does not ensure that you will get depression, but it is crucial to be aware that it is a potential. Learn more about how ADHD and depression are linked.Disorders of conduct and behavior

Youngsters with ADHD have greater behavior and conduct issues than children without the disorder. When a person does not feel understood by those around them, several diseases might develop.

If they don't feel understood, they may quarrel a lot, lose their anger, or purposefully upset others. These symptoms could indicate oppositional defiant disorder.

Some people can't stop themselves from breaking laws or acting violently against others, such as fighting, bullying, or stealing things that aren't theirs. Conduct disorder is the term for this.

Treatment is available for people who are dealing with these issues, but experts advise starting early and making sure the treatment meets the person's and their family's needs.

Learning disability

Some children with ADHD have a learning issue, which makes it even more difficult for them to complete their schoolwork. Dyslexia, which makes reading difficult, or difficulty with numbers or writing are examples.

These difficulties can make it difficult for a child to manage at school and exacerbate anxiety and depression. It is critical to get care as soon as possible in order to reduce the severity of these difficulties.

Suggestions for dealing with ADHD

A consistent routine with structure and regular expectations may be beneficial if you or your child has ADHD. Adults can benefit from the following tips to keep organized:

Focusing on writing down homework assignments and keeping everyday items, such as toys and backpacks, in designated areas can be beneficial for children.

Learning more about the condition as a whole will also help you figure out how to deal with it. Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Children and Adults with ADHD) or the Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA) provide management advice as well as the newest research.

Your doctor can provide you more advice on how to deal with your ADHD symptoms. Here are some suggestions for assisting your child with ADHD.


ADHD, whether in children and adults, can have a significant influence on your life if left untreated. It can have an impact on school, work, and personal relationships. Treatment is necessary to mitigate the condition's effects.

It's nevertheless vital to remember that many people with ADHD have successful and meaningful lives. Some people even value the condition's advantages.If you suspect you or your child has ADHD, the first step should be to consult with a doctor. They can help you or your child figure out if ADHD is a factor. Your doctor can assist you in developing a treatment plan that will allow you to better manage your symptoms and live with ADHD.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has 14 symptoms (ADHD)

Here are 14 of the most prevalent indications of ADHD in kids:

1. A self-centered attitude

What appears to be an inability to recognize other people's wants and desires is a common symptom of ADHD. This can lead to the following two symptoms:


they have a hard time waiting for their turn

2. Disruption

Self-focused conduct might lead to a youngster with ADHD interrupting people while they're speaking or jumping into conversations or games they're not supposed to be in.

3. They have a hard time waiting their turn

Children with ADHD may have difficulty waiting their turn in class or when playing games with other kids.

4. Emotional anguish

A child with ADHD may have difficulty controlling their emotions. They may have angry outbursts at inopportune moments.

Temper tantrums are common in younger children.

Fidgeting is a common occurrence.

Children with ADHD frequently have trouble sitting still. When forced to sit, they may try to get up and run around, fidget, or squirm in their chair.

6. Issues with playing softly

Fidgetiness can make it difficult for children with ADHD to play quietly or participate calmly in recreational activities.

7. Tasks that have not been completed

A youngster with ADHD may exhibit interest in a variety of activities, but they may struggle to complete them. They may begin projects, chores, or assignments, for example, but then move on to the next thing that piques their attention before completing them.

8. Inability to concentrate

Even when someone is speaking directly to them, a youngster with ADHD may have problems paying attention. They'll claim to have heard you, but they'll be unable to repeat what you've just said.

9. Avoiding chores that require a lot of mental effort.

A child's lack of focus can lead them to avoid activities that demand persistent mental effort, such as paying attention in class or doing homework.


Children with ADHD may struggle to follow instructions that require them to plan or execute a strategy. This can lead to casual errors, but it is not indicative of laziness or intellect.


Children with ADHD aren't necessarily rowdy and obnoxious. Being quieter and less involved than other youngsters is another indicator of ADHD.

A child with ADHD may look into space, daydream, and be completely oblivious to what is going on around them.

12. Having trouble staying organized

Keeping track of tasks and activities might be difficult for a youngster with ADHD. This might lead to difficulties at school, as kids may struggle to prioritize homework, school projects, and other responsibilities.

13. Loss of memory

ADHD children are prone to forgetfulness in regular activities. They can forget about their tasks or assignments. They may also misplace items frequently, such as toys.

14. Symptoms in a variety of situations

A youngster with ADHD will exhibit symptoms of the disorder in a variety of situations. They may, for example, exhibit a lack of focus both at school and at home. As children grow older, their symptoms change.

Youngsters with ADHD generally don't have as much self-control as other children their age as they get older. This might make ADHD children and teenagers appear immature in comparison to their classmates.

Adolescents with ADHD may struggle with the following daily tasks:

concentrating on studies and homework

interpreting social cues

collaborating with others

keeping up with personal hygiene

assisting with household duties

management of time

driving with caution

Looking ahead

At some point, all children will engage in some of these behaviors. Children's daydreaming, fidgeting, and constant disruptions are all common behaviors.

If you're considering the next steps, consider the following:

Your youngster exhibits symptoms of ADHD on a regular basis.

This behavior is harming their academic performance and causing them to have unfavorable interactions with their peers.

ADHD can be managed. Examine all of your child's therapy choices if he or she has been diagnosed with ADHD. Then schedule an appointment with a doctor or psychologist to discuss your options.

What's the Link Between ADHD and ODD?

Acting out is a common occurrence in children, and it does not always indicate that the child has a behavioral problem.

Some youngsters, on the other hand, have a history of misbehaving. This could lead to an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder diagnosis (ODD).

ADHD children are easily distracted, unorganized, and may have trouble sitting still. Angry, stubborn, or vengeful children are sometimes labeled as having ODD.

What happens if you have ADHD and ODD at the same time?

The behavior of a child and how they interact with their family, friends, and teachers are all factors in ODD. ADHD is a neurological condition.

These conditions are distinct, although they can coexist. In ADHD, impulsivity may be linked to several seemingly rebellious symptoms. In fact, it's estimated that almost 40% of youngsters with ADHD also have ODD. Not all children with ODD have ADHD, just as not all children with ADHD have ODD. When playing with classmates, a child with ADHD may have a lot of energy or become extremely excited. This can occasionally lead to roughhousing and unintentional injury to others. Tantrums are common among children with ADHD. However, this isn't a typical sign of the condition. Rather, the tantrum could be an uncontrollable outpouring of displeasure or boredom.

If a child has ODD, they may struggle with impulse control as well as an angry or irritable mood, which can lead to physical aggressiveness. Tantrums may be a result of these children's failure to regulate their emotions. They may be vindictive, deliberately upset others, and blame others for their own errors. They could lash out and blame the classmate, then refuse to apologize, in addition to being extremely excited and harming a classmate while playing. It's crucial to remember that ODD and ADHD symptoms can coexist with learning difficulties and other types of behavioral issues. Before establishing a diagnosis, a physician should take the time to gain a thorough picture of the entire symptoms.

Lying, stealing, destroying property, violence toward people or animals, and significant rule violations, such as running away from home or truancy from school, are all examples of conduct disorder.

What are the signs and symptoms of ODD and ADHD?

When ADHD and ODD coexist, a child will have symptoms from both conditions. Both illnesses require symptoms to be present for at least 6 months before a diagnosis can be made.



What methods are used to diagnose ADHD and ODD?

It's important to remember that a youngster doesn't have to show all of the symptoms of ADHD and ODD to be diagnosed with both disorders.

Both ODD and ADHD cannot be diagnosed with a single test. A diagnosis is usually made following a medical checkup and a psychological test to rule out other diseases like depression or learning disabilities. Doctors may request a kid's personal and family medical history, as well as interview a child's teacher, babysitter, or other people with whom the child has frequent contact, in order to assist with a diagnosis.

What options are there for treatment?

When these disorders coexist, medication to lessen hyperactivity and inattention, as well as counseling to manage defiant conduct, are used to treat them. Stimulants, which are used to treat ADHD, work by rebalancing brain chemicals. These medications are quick-acting, but finding the proper dosage for your child can take some time. Some stimulants have been linked to death from heart disease in infants with heart abnormalities. Before prescribing these medicines, your doctor may order an ECG. This test detects heart abnormalities by measuring electrical activity in your child's heart.

ADHD is also treated with several cognitive-enhancing medications, antihypertensive medicines, and antidepressants. Behavioral treatment, family counseling, and social skills training may also be beneficial to some children. If there are other symptoms to treat, medication isn't used to treat ODD. There are currently no FDA-approved medicines for the treatment of ODD. Individual and family therapy are commonly used in treatment. Communication and parent-child interactions can both benefit from family therapy.

Cognitive problem-solving training may also be given to your youngster. This instruction assists them in identifying and correcting negative thought patterns that might contribute to behavioral issues. Some kids get social skills training to learn how to connect with their peers properly.

What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive?

The cause of these illnesses is uncertain. However, genetics and environmental factors are thought to play a role. If ADHD runs in the family, for example, a child may have both illnesses. Symptoms vary, however they can involve self-harming patterns of behavior. These children may also be aggressive in social situations.

When it comes to environmental variables, lead exposure has been linked to an increased risk of ADHD. If there is a history of harsh discipline, abuse, or neglect in the home, a child may be at risk for ODD.

Where can I get assistance?

Both ADHD and ODD diagnoses can cause problems at home and at school for a youngster. It might cause friction between them and their parents, siblings, and classmates.

In addition, being unable to focus or sit still, as well as disagreeing with teachers, can lead to low academic achievement.

Both disorders can lead to low self-esteem and despair if left untreated. This puts a child at danger of abusing alcohol or drugs, engaging in antisocial behavior, or even committing suicide. If your child shows signs of ADHD, ODD, or both, go to their doctor. A mental health professional can be referred by your doctor. You can also use the American Psychological Association's Psychologist Locator to find a doctor.

Based on the severity of your kid's problem, a child psychologist or psychiatrist can make a diagnosis and develop a treatment plan.

When a youngster exhibits indications of ADHD or ODD, early intervention is critical. To ease symptoms and correct unfavorable patterns, treatment may include a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Even when therapy is effective, some children require continued treatment to maintain control of their illnesses. Don't be afraid to seek help and discuss any concerns with your child's healthcare professional.

What Are the Three Types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a long-term condition that affects a person's emotions, behaviors, and ability to learn new things. It primarily affects youngsters, though it can also impact adults. The effects of ADHD differ from one person to the next. Symptoms must have an influence on your day-to-day life in order to be diagnosed with ADHD. Here's all you need to know about the many varieties of ADHD, as well as how they're diagnosed and treated.

There are three primary forms of ADHD:

The following are some of the most common manifestations of these behaviors:

Because everyone is different, it's typical for two people to have the same symptoms but interpret them differently. These behaviors, for example, are frequently different in males and girls. Boys may appear to be more energetic, while girls may appear to be quite inattentive.

Which form of ADHD you have will be determined by your symptoms.

Type of inattentiveness

If you have this type of ADHD, you may notice that you have more inattention symptoms than impulsivity or hyperactivity. At times, you could struggle with impulse control or hyperactivity. However, these aren't the most prominent features of inattentive ADHD.

People that have a lot of inattentive behavior:

lose pencils, papers, or other objects needed to accomplish a task don't seem to listen move slowly and appear to be daydreaming process information more slowly and inaccurately than others have trouble following directions

Girls are more likely than boys to be diagnosed with inattentive type ADHD.

Type A is hyperactive and impulsive.

The characteristics of impulsivity and hyperactivity characterize this kind of ADHD. This type can show indicators of inattention, although it isn't as noticeable as the other symptoms.

Impulsive or hyperactive people frequently:

squirm, fidget, or become agitated

have trouble sitting still talk frequently touch and play with objects, even when it isn't appropriate to the work at hand have difficulty engaging in calm activities are always "on the go" are impatient behave out of turn and don't consider the implications of their actions

make hasty decisions and inappropriate remarks

Children who are hyperactive-impulsive are called hyperactive-impulsive children. ADHD can cause problems in the classroom. They have the potential to make learning more difficult for themselves and others.

Boys are diagnosed with hyperactive-impulsive disorder at a higher rate than girls.

Combination type

If you have the combination type, your symptoms don't just fall into one of two categories: inattention or hyperactive-impulsive conduct. Instead, a mixture of symptoms from both categories is manifested.

Inattentive or impulsive conduct affects the majority of people, whether they have ADHD or not. However, it is more severe in persons who have ADHD. The behavior is becoming more frequent, and it is interfering with your ability to perform at home, school, job, and in social situations.

According to the National Institute of Mental HealthTrusted Source, the majority of youngsters have combo type ADHD. This kind is more prevalent in boys than in girls. Hyperactivity is the most prevalent symptom among preschool-aged children.

Because symptoms alter over time, the type of ADHD you have may also change. ADHD is a chronic condition that can last a lifetime. Medication and other treatments, on the other hand, can help you live a better life.


ADHD's actual cause is uncertain. Although some have claimed that ADHD develops as a result of things like as excessive sugar consumption, excessive television viewing, or living in a chaotic environment, study has found no evidence to back up these claims. Genetics, rather, is assumed to play a role in the development of ADHD. Researchers are also looking into the following factors:

damage to the brain

Toxic exposure, such as lead, during pregnancy or from a young age; usage of alcohol or tobacco during pregnancy

Low birth weight or preterm birth

Though there's still a lot we don't know about the causes of ADHD.

Who is impacted by this?

ADHD can affect everyone, but males are twice as likely to suffer from it.

ADHD symptoms usually appear between the ages of 3 and 6Trusted Source, with the average age of diagnosis being 7 years oldTrusted Source. In the United States, around 9.4% of all children have been diagnosed with ADHD. Adults might also suffer from ADHD. In the United States, an estimated 4.4 percent of adults have ADHD, according to studies, although this percentage is on the rise, according to research.

What is the procedure for diagnosing it?

There is no straightforward test for diagnosing ADHD. Symptoms commonly appear in children before they reach the age of seven. However, the symptoms of ADHD are similar to those of other diseases. Before making a diagnosis, your doctor may try to rule out disorders like depression, anxiety, and certain sleep problems.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is used to diagnose ADHD in children and adults in the United States. It comprises a thorough behavioral diagnostic assessment.

For a specific kind of ADHD, a person must exhibit at least six of the nine key symptoms. You must exhibit at least six signs of inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior to be diagnosed with combined ADHD. For at least 6 months, the behaviors must be present and disruptive to daily life.

In addition to displaying a pattern of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, or both, the DSM-5 says that a person's symptoms must be present before the age of 12. They must also be present in several settings, such as at school and at home.

Symptoms must also cause problems in daily living. And no other mental illness can account for these symptoms.

One kind of ADHD may be discovered during an initial diagnostic. However, symptoms can shift over time. Adults who may need to be reevaluated should be aware of this information.


There are a variety of therapy options available after you've been diagnosed. The main goal of treatment is to control ADHD symptoms while also encouraging positive behavior.


Before starting any drugs, your doctor may suggest behavioral counseling. Therapy can assist people with ADHD in replacing negative behaviors with positive ones. Alternatively, assist them in finding ways to express their emotions.

Parents can also get help with their children's behavior. This can assist them in controlling their child's conduct. It can also assist them in developing new coping skills to deal with the disease.

Children under the age of six typically begin with behavior therapy rather than medication. A combination of behavior therapy and drugs may be most beneficial for children aged 6 and higher. Adults and children with ADHD may benefit from other therapeutic alternatives such as cognitive behavioral therapy, family or marital counseling, consulting with an ADHD coach, or attempting classroom management techniques.

Support groups can also help people with ADHD and their loved ones heal emotionally.


There are medications that can help with hyperactivity and impulsivity, as well as focus, work, and learning, as well as physical coordination. Stimulants and nonstimulants are the two categories of ADHD drugs.

The most often recommended ADHD drugs are stimulants. They act quickly by enhancing the production of brain chemicals that aid in thinking and attention. While taking these drugs, 70 to 80 percent of youngsters experience fewer symptoms.

Stimulants do have certain negative side effects, such as:

There are also some nonstimulant drugs that can be used to treat ADHD. These can also be used to help with impulsivity, focus, and attention. They do not, however, function as swiftly as stimulants.

Nonstimulants are a fantastic alternative for folks who aren't receiving results from stimulants or are having bad side effects

Adults with ADHD frequently benefit from the same therapies as youngsters.

Working closely with your doctor to determine the optimal medication or combination of medicines for your ADHD, as well as the appropriate dosage, is critical.

5 Common ADHD Misconceptions Dispelled

There are a lot of misunderstandings about ADHD, just like there are a lot of misconceptions about a lot of other health disorders. The people in the community are being harmed by these misconceptions about the situation. They can cause issues such as delays in diagnosis and treatment, as well as a sense of misunderstood among patients. Take, for example, my patient Vanessa. She struggled in school for years, both in high school and college. She was unable to retain information she had spent hours acquiring and was continuously anxious at the prospect of the tasks she had to complete during those years.

She didn't understand why this was occurring to her until she sought therapy from a doctor in college and was diagnosed with ADHD. Vanessa might have been given the right tools to help her through school if she had been diagnosed at a younger age. According to the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI), around 9% of children and 4% of adults suffer from ADHD. There's a good chance you know someone who suffers from it.

In honor of Mental Health Awareness Month, I've compiled a list of five myths about ADHD that need to be debunked right now in order to shed light on the realities of the condition.

Myth 1: Girls aren't affected by ADHD.

In general, young girls are less likely than young boys to be hyperactive or demonstrate as many behavioral difficulties, hence ADHD in girls is typically misdiagnosed. As a result, girls are less likely than boys to be referred for an ADHD assessment.

The problem with this notion is that because girls with ADHD are frequently left untreated, their condition can worsen, leading to problems such as:



person with an antisocial personality

in adulthood, various associated disorders

As a result, it's critical that we enhance our ability to identify girls with ADHD and give them with the necessary support.

Myth 2: ADHD is caused by bad parenting.

Some of my adult ADHD patients will bring their parents to their sessions. During these sessions, I frequently hear parents express their regret for not doing more to assist their child flourish and control their symptoms. This is typically due to the misconception that ADHD is caused by "bad parenting."

But, in reality, this isn't the case. Though structure is crucial for someone with ADHD, penalizing them for symptoms like stuttering, restlessness, hyperactivity, or impulsivity can be harmful in the long run. However, because many people mistake this type of conduct for a child being "badly mannered," parents are sometimes condemned for not being able to discipline their children.

As a result, professional interventions like psychotherapy and medication are frequently required.

Myth #3: ADHD patients are slackers.

Many of my ADHD patients tell me that they are frequently accused of being lazy, which makes them feel terrible for not being as active and motivated as others expect.

People with ADHD require more discipline and reminders to complete tasks, particularly those that demand persistent mental effort. However, because ADHD symptoms include apathy, disorganization, and a lack of drive unless it's tied to an activity they actually enjoy, this could be misinterpreted as laziness. However, the reality is that persons with ADHD genuinely want to achieve, but they may find it difficult to commence and complete "basic" tasks. Sorting through mail or responding to an email can be difficult for someone with this illness because it demands a lot more sustained mental activity.

This fallacy is especially dangerous since these judgments can lead to feelings of failure, which can lead to low self-esteem and a lack of confidence in pursuing life goals.

Myth #4: Having ADHD isn't a big deal.

While ADHD is not fatal, it can have a significant impact on a person's overall quality of life. People with ADHD are more likely than the general population to have:


Disorders of the mind and substance abuse

Meanwhile, one of the most common complaints I get from my ADHD patients is that it's impossible to keep up with work duties, and that they're always supervised or on probation. This means they are constantly afraid of losing their jobs and not being able to make ends meet, which can have a negative impact on their personal lives.

In order to thrive, people with ADHD may need additional time to finish tasks. Unfortunately, while these types of concessions may be available in school settings (for example, more time to take tests or silent exam rooms), businesses may not be as accommodating.

Myth #5: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) isn't a real medical condition.

There are changes in how brain chemicals like dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate function in a brain with ADHD versus one without it, according to research. The areas of the brain involved in ADHD are critical for our "executive functions," which include:



launching projects

Studies involving twins

According to Trusted Source, ADHD has a genetic component, meaning that if one twin has ADHD, the other is likely to have it as well.

Last but not least

Individuals with ADHD are very frequently judged and improperly labeled. Furthermore, they frequently discover:

They aren't given the opportunity to succeed since accommodations aren't made.

They aren't diagnosed in a timely manner.

They have to deal with those who don't believe ADHD is a real condition.

For these and other reasons, stereotypes about ADHD must be debunked if we are to promote awareness about the condition and give people with the tools they need to achieve in all aspects of their lives.

Facts, Statistics, and You (ADHD by the Numbers) 

ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a neurodevelopmental illness that most commonly affects children but can also affect adults. Among the signs and symptoms of ADHD are:

It's not always easy to figure out what's wrong with you. Because many signs of ADHD might be mistaken for ordinary juvenile behaviors, it's difficult to tell what's ADHD-related and what isn't. The following are some fundamental facts and symptoms of ADHD.

5 quick facts

ADHD Demographic Factors

The likelihood of being diagnosed with ADHD is influenced by demographic factors. Children who grow up in homes where English is the primary language are four times more likely to be diagnosed than children who grow up in homes where English is a second language. Children from lower-income families have a larger chance than children from higher-income families of falling into poverty. ADHD affects around 6.4 million children in the United States, ranging in age from 4 to 17. Some states have a higher prevalence of ADHD than others. The states in the western United States have the lowest prevalence of ADHD in general. The state with the lowest rates is Nevada. The Midwest appears to have the highest rates. The state with the highest rates is Kentucky.

Lowest prices

4.2 percent in Nevada

New Jersey has a 5.5 percent unemployment rate.

5.6 percent in Colorado

5.8 percent in Utah

California is at 5.9%.

Highest Rates

14.8 percent in Kentucky

14.6 percent in Arkansas

Louisiana has 13.3% of the population.

13.0 percent in Indiana

11.7 percent in Delaware and South Carolina.

Certain diseases may have varied effects on different races, although ADHD affects children of all ethnicities. Between 2001 and 2010, the rate of ADHD in non-Hispanic black females grew by more than 90%

Children of all races are affected by ADHD.

9.8% of the population is white.

9.5 percent of the population is black.

Latinos make about 5.5 percent of the population.

Children are diagnosed at various ages.

The time it takes to detect symptoms varies from case to case, and the earlier the diagnosis, the better.

In the ascendant

In recent years, the number of cases and diagnoses of ADHD has risen rapidly. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), 5% of American youngsters have ADHD. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that the figure is more than double. According to the CDC, 11 percent of American children aged 4 to 17 had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 2011. Between 2003 and 2011, there was a 42 percent increase.

Increased number of diagnoses:

7.8 percent in 2003

9.5 percent in 2007

11 percent in 2011

a total of 50 states

ADHD and other disorders

ADHD does not put a person at risk for other illnesses or disorders. However, certain people with ADHD, particularly children, are more prone to have a number of concomitant disorders. They can make social interactions more difficult, as well as school, at times. The following are some examples of probable coexisting conditions:

Medical expenses

When it comes to how a sickness impacts someone, cost is a huge aspect. Treatment plans and medications can be costly, and budgeting for them might be difficult. According to a 2007 studyTrusted Source, the "cost of disease" for a person with ADHD is $14,576 per year. That means ADHD costs $42.5 billion a year in the United States — and that's on the low end of ADHD prevalence estimates. When dealing with an ADHD diagnosis, the price of medications and treatments aren't the only things to consider. Other cost-increasing elements include:

Various signs and symptoms

Boys and girls can show a wide range of ADHD symptoms, and boys are far more likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Why? It's likely that the nature of ADHD symptoms in guys makes them more visible than in girls.

Boys are more likely to exhibit externalized symptoms that most people associate with ADHD behavior, such as:

Because it is not "typical" ADHD behavior, ADHD in girls is often overlooked. The signs and symptoms aren't as noticeable in girls as they are in guys. They may include the following:

10 Ways to Help Children with ADHD Manage Their Screen Time 

You're not alone if you and your children frequently argue about screen time (don't we all?) but want to learn how to set healthy limits. The majority of parents worry about their children's screen time. Parents and caregivers, on the other hand, appear to face a unique challenge in assisting children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in managing screen time.

"Electronic usage is a part of everyday life and is not inherently problematic; like many other issues, it is a matter of moderation," says Endicott College's Mary Jane Weiss, PhD, BCBA-D, LABA. While screen time has some advantages and disadvantages, it's critical for parents to consider their child's screen use, the impact it has on the child, and the child's overall behavior and well-being.

The advantages and disadvantages of screen time for children with ADHD

According to Weiss, one of the benefits of screen time for children with ADHD is a high level of engagement in a preferred activity. "Many children enjoy screen time, and it can be used as a reward for other less favorite tasks (such as homework completion), and it can also be instructive depending on the activity," she says. According to Weiss, engaging in academic tasks in a virtual format may be more appealing and even more effective for visual learners. Many kids with ADHD use it as a social outlet, which can be beneficial when used properly.

According to Khadijah Booth Watkins, MD, MPH, associate director of the Clay Center for Young Healthy Minds at Massachusetts General Hospital, one area that can be negatively impacted by screen time is sleep. Sleep is already a challenge for many children with ADHD. "This is especially important for kids with ADHD because sleep deprivation can exacerbate symptoms like attention, concentration, and frustration tolerance," she says. We all suffer when we don't get enough sleep, so it's critical that we ensure that our children do as well.

According to Teodora Pavkovic, a nationally recognized psychologist and digital wellness specialist at the K-12 EdTech business Linewize, screen usage can increase attention challenges and mood disruptions in children with developmental abnormalities, as well as those who are prone to anxiety concerns. One reason, according to Pavkovic, is that a child's neurological system is overstimulated by so much screen-based content. Furthermore, once children have been engrossed in technology, it can be difficult for them to withdraw.

Tips for assisting children with ADHD in managing their screen time

Screen time has a place in the lives of a youngster. However, how you go about establishing healthy limits and attaining balance can boost collaboration and lessen conflicts that frequently occur when children are forced to put down their devices. "We want to make sure our kids are striking a good and healthy balance between screen time and other developmental responsibilities like extracurricular activities, spending time with friends, finishing homework, spending time with family, and so on," says Booth Watkins.

With that in mind, here are 10 screen-time management recommendations for kids with ADHD.

1. Make a media strategy for your family.

When it comes to teaching kids how to control their screen usage, getting buy-in from the entire family is critical. Making a family media plan together is one approach to get off on the right foot. Conversations, brainstorming sessions, and consideration of ideas from each family member are all part of this process. Don't be scared to get inventive when it comes to motivating and incentivizing your children to get them enthused about the plan.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has a great guide and interactive tool for building a family media plan if you need some help getting started. They also feature a media time calculator that you may use once you've created and implemented your plan.

2. Create guidelines that are age-appropriate.

Age-appropriate screen time rules and boundaries should be implemented. There are various online resources that can assist parents and guardians in setting limitations based on the types of content being consumed. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, children should not be exposed to any screen time until they are 18 to 24 months old, with the exception of video chatting. Children aged 2 to 5 should have no more than 1 hour of screen use per day.

When it comes to older children, the American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that parents and guardians set limitations and boundaries with their children when it comes to screen time. This is when the media plan for the family comes in helpful.

3. Make a plan.

For children with ADHD, boundaries and consistency are essential. Pavkovic suggests creating a consistent screen schedule (with your child's input if they're old enough) and limiting your child's ability to switch between too many different games or platforms during this time.

"Children with ADHD have a hard enough time avoiding distractions," she explains, "so families are encouraged to really assist them succeed as much as possible."

4. Issue a cautionary statement

Pavkovic recommends giving some time prompts in a calm manner just before screen time starts to come to an end, rather than abruptly halting screen time. Some youngsters, however, find time-based restrictions too tough to adhere to, so she suggests devising an achievement-based plan such as "you can stop after you win x number of gold coins in the game." Families will, of course, want to make sure that this is done within an acceptable time frame.

For older children, you can provide a warning several minutes before screen time expires, with the purpose of teaching the child to self-monitor using a timer, then go in and ask, "How much time is left?" 5 minutes before screen time ends. This will assist the youngster in learning to self-monitor, which is an important aspect of developing self-control.

5. Keep screen time to a minimum.

"Children with ADHD appear to benefit more frequently from shorter periods of screen-based activities," Pavkovic says.

For example, instead of 2 hours per day, twice a week, spend 40 minutes per day, five days a week. Families, on the other hand, are urged to experiment with screen time to discover a solution that produces the best behavioral results for their child, and then stick to it.

6. Make use of parental control tools and apps

Parents' best friends are blocking applications, timers, and other tools. Not only do they help parents keep track of what their children are watching, doing, and viewing online, but they also reduce the verbal back and forth between adults and children when it's time to turn off the computer. Parents can use blocking apps and programs to turn off the internet connection on specific devices or block specific websites at specific times. You can use the applications provided by some internet providers and systems. Otherwise, there are other free and subscription-based choices available, including:

7. Physical activity should be done after screen time.

Teaching children healthy screen-time habits might help them develop healthy habits in other areas of their lives. That's why Pavkovic suggests combining screen time with some sort of physical activity, such that the physical activity follows the tech-based one. After screen time is over, for example, your child can choose from a variety of physical activities like as playing outside, riding a bike, shooting baskets, dancing, or riding a scooter.

8. Be picky about how much time you spend in front of the device.

According to Pavkovic, cutting out or minimizing beneficial screen time for your child should be done with caution. "Find other screen time activities that might be curtailed instead if your youngster is able to socialize through technology or enjoys being physically active by playing online games or following fitness tutorials," she advises. This is also an excellent opportunity to promote the use of screens for creative purposes rather than merely for watching media.

9. If it's out of sight, it's out of mind

Place all screens away while not in use. This is also true for parents. "Our kids absorb their cues from us," says Booth Watkins, "and we need to be purposeful in modeling appropriate screen use and limitations." Setting screen-free time and electronic-free zones that the entire family adheres to can also be a smart method to control screen use without feeling punitive, according to her. If the rule extends to the entire household, the child will not feel as singled out. For example, don't bring your phone to the table during meals, or set aside certain days and times to be screen-free.

With that in mind, Booth Watkins believes that parents may need to assist their children in finding alternative ways to spend their time.

"I often recommend creating a menu of activities in preparation that your child may pick from, such as reading a book, arts and crafts, playing outside, playing a board game, or other agreed-upon activities," she says.

Additionally, it is crucial for sleep to remove all electronics from bedrooms at least 30 to 60 minutes before bedtime. Furthermore, spending too much time on electronics at night can have a negative impact on your child's performance at school the next day. Finally, keep all screens in a location that only parents or guardians know about. This decreases the likelihood that your youngster may wake up in the middle of the night searching for their device.

10. Change the way you think about screen restrictions.

Rather than thinking of it as screen time management, Booth Watkins suggests that we should think of it as assisting our children in developing good screen time habits and relationships.

"Kids with ADHD may require more assistance in internalizing the new schedules and structure," she continues, "particularly because they may struggle more when it comes to tolerating delayed gratification."


Investing time in a screen-time schedule, encouraging conversations about technology use, and working with your child to create good habits can help to prevent conflict and encourage positive outcomes. Technology is ingrained in our culture, and teaching children how to use it responsibly is a crucial skill.

Is an ADHD Coach Right for Your Family? 

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 8.4% of children and 2.5 percent of adults, according to the American Psychiatric Association. Families with ADHD can feel overwhelmed, disorganized, and out of sorts at times, particularly when it comes to day-to-day life operations. Creating a system that works for everyone, whether you have one child with ADHD or three, is no easy task. As a result, some families seek help from outside sources. You've probably heard of ADHD coaches. These coaches claim to be able to assist with techniques and tools that address organization, time management, goal-setting, and other skills required to carry out day-to-day tasks.

What is the role of an ADHD coach?

While there is a wide diversity of experience and qualifications across coaches, there are some common themes that most of them cover in their services. ADHD coaches work with families to develop skills and provide support, with the objective of empowering the kid and other family members to make positive changes in their life. Being an ADHD coach does not imply that someone is a therapist or that they give psychotherapy or educational and psychological assessment, unless they have extra training. Some therapists and psychologists, on the other hand, provide ADHD coaching as part of their services. If you're looking for someone who is licensed to perform mental health or academic assessment, it's important inquiring about qualifications.

Adults and college students are the primary clients of ADHD coaches. However, more families are turning to agencies for assistance with their younger children and teenagers.

ADHD coaches, according to Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, focus on basic weaknesses such as organization, time management, problem-solving, and goal-setting. They can also assist with coping skills, emotional regulation, and parenting strategies, albeit this should be done with the support of a competent psychologist or therapist. A coach's duty includes educating families about ADHD and establishing a collaborative working environment in which the coach acts as a facilitator. It also fosters a nonjudgmental atmosphere in which all family members can be heard. Families that already have a doctor, psychologist, or professional therapist monitoring a treatment plan but need someone to help them implement it on a day-to-day basis can benefit greatly from this resource.

An ADHD coach, according to Rebecca Tolbert, LICSW, a therapist and ADHD coach, can be tremendously beneficial for some families. "While a medication-only approach to ADHD can help the child while they are treated, it does not teach them skills to succeed once the medicines wear off, or how to manage themselves should they chose to stop taking medication later in life," she explained. Some coaches meet with families in person or through online meetings, while others may be willing to come to your home to get a better sense of the family setting and how ADHD may be affecting daily activities. Not all ADHD coaches are psychologists, behavioral interventionists, therapists, or social workers, as previously stated. Furthermore, unlike a therapist or psychologist who is also an ADHD coach, some merely have coaching training, limiting the types of services they may give. They're limited to non-therapeutic activities like letting the youngster practice planning and monitoring the accomplishment of short and long-term objectives without extra instruction.

What is the best way to locate an ADHD coach?

ADHD coaching is a relatively new addition to the field of psychology. Despite the fact that the formal ADHD diagnosis has been around for decades, the idea of employing a coach to help families find more discipline and success with daily routines, impulsivity, inattention, home and school tasks, and overall self-confidence is only now gaining traction. As a result, selecting a credible instructor necessitates a little detective effort on your behalf.

Tolbert reminds out that the coaching industry might be difficult to navigate due to the numerous credentials available. However, there isn't a conventional coaching board. As a result, she prefers trainers with additional credentials, such as therapists, social workers, and psychologists. According to Rebecca Mannis, PhD, Learning Specialist at Ivy Prep Learning Center, there has been an increase in the number of firms and people offering to provide ADHD coaching. Despite this, ADHD coaching is mostly unregulated. However, according to Mannis, this does not rule out the possibility of working with an ADHD coach. It's critical to learn about a coach's qualifications and expertise to ensure that he or she is the proper fit for you or your child. "For example, some children appear to want assistance with time management when it comes to writing because they avoid and postpone, therefore it's critical to identify the core cause of the avoidance," she explained.

Mannis recommends working with someone trained in reading challenges and connecting note-taking to establishing a project plan if a youngster cannot comprehend what they are reading and hence cannot organize and outline. "Just concentrating on motivation or whether to do the assignment before or after soccer practice will not suffice," she explained.


ADHD coaching is not covered by health insurance, so you'll have to pay for everything out of yourself. The cost of a session varies and is mostly determined by other factors. Coaching sessions might cost anywhere from $75 to $250 per hour.


Questions to ponder

Once you've narrowed down your choices, meet with potential coaches and ask them a few questions to see whether they're a good fit for your family. You might wish to ask the following questions:

Last but not least

One tool in your ADHD toolbox is hiring an ADHD coach to help you through everyday routines. A coach cannot give treatment or special schooling, but they can provide support and ideas for coping with everyday life. Consult your doctor, family physician, or therapist if you're unsure about the role an ADHD coach can play in your life. They can assist you in determining whether or not this is in your family's best interests.

10 Tips for Your ADHD Child's School Backpack 

Let's face it, attending to school entails a variety of responsibilities that even grownups may struggle with.

Staying organized throughout the day can be a difficult task, especially for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Managing multiple classes, meeting deadlines, keeping track of assignments, books, pens, pencils, lunch boxes, phones, laptops, and anything else that may find its way into a backpack can be overwhelming (ADHD). This is due to the fact that people with ADHD are frequently distracted. They may struggle to listen to instructions, complete work, organize materials, and maintain their possessions in order.

As a result, students are more likely to misplace school-related items such as supplies, books, eyeglasses, and assignments, according to the National Institute of Mental Health. Furthermore, children and teens with ADHD have significant deficiencies in working memory and broad-based organizing skills, according to a 2018 study.

To put it another way, decreased working memory can make it difficult for children with ADHD to anticipate, plan, carry out, and maintain goal-directed behaviors like being organized and on-task. However, finding strategies to assist your child in organizing his or her life, particularly their backpack, can have a significant impact on how they feel about school. We look at nine backpack organizing recommendations, including which backpacks are ideal, what things to buy, how to fill a bag, and why a color-coding system might be the best approach to keep your child organized.

Picking out a backpack

The first step in organizing 101 is to locate a backpack that works with, rather than against, your child's brain.

Avoid bags that have a lot of pockets, hidden compartments, or zippers. Unfortunately, the more pockets and compartments there are, the more likely something may be difficult to locate. Keeping this in mind, the best backpack for ADHD students in middle and high school usually features one to two large pockets (one in the back and one in the front) as well as two little pockets.

A backpack with only one large zipped compartment is appropriate for younger children. Not to mention the drink holder. This is usually found on the backpack's side. Last but not least, pay attention to the straps. You'll need padded straps that are large enough to distribute the weight evenly. Your youngster should be able to try on the backpack before purchasing it to check that it fits properly.

Purchase of supplies

After you've chosen a backpack, the next step is to fill it with supplies. If your school has a supply list with required items, double-check it before going to the store. Otherwise, here are some items to think about buying.

Make use of a color-coded scheme.

Color-coding folders, books, and notebooks is a great aid for kids with ADHD because it eliminates the need for them to actively think about which book is their math book and which folder belongs with it. Consider it a "grab-and-go" system.

The goal is to choose a single color for each subject. For middle and high school students, this entails selecting a textbook cover color that coordinates with the notebook and folder assigned to that class.

Cover the arithmetic book in red, then match it with a red notebook and a red folder or binder. The beautiful thing about this method is that learning that red means arithmetic takes only a few weeks. All of the subjects are easily identifiable, even in a large bag.

Make a folder for your assignment.

A homework binder is beneficial to students of all ages. This folder can hold any homework that needs to be completed or given in, regardless of class. Make sure it stands out in terms of color and style from the other folders. You'll also want to make sure your child always keeps it in the same place in their backpack. This makes it simple to check for assignments to turn in or double-check everything before they leave the house. Parents who check their child's backpack or assignments each day when they get home from school will benefit from a designated homework folder. Rather than rummaging through numerous folders or crumpled papers at the bottom of the bag, you can pull out this single folder and see what tasks your child has that night.

Signing off on the homework folder each day can help both parents and instructors ensure that homework is done and given in on time.

If your child is younger, let them choose a brightly colored homework folder. Label one pocket "for home" and the other "for school" on the inside. They can also use it for school-related documents such as permission slips, parent notes, and office forms, among other things.

The larger compartments are being packed.

If your backpack has two compartments, the larger one in the back can be used to store books, folders, and notebooks – basically anything large that will help you learn for the day. The planner and a folder containing homework can be stored in the front compartment. This folder is distinct from the color-coded folders that accompany each lesson and book. To begin, arrange everything on the floor. Sort and arrange supplies and goods with your child, then allocate them to a compartment or pocket. When your child is hunting for a book or folder in class, this helps them remember where everything is.

This is something you should do with your child. It will help them learn the organizing system if they talk about it jointly, but patience is required. Allow time for them to learn through practice, as recall and use of the system rely heavily on repetition.

Other suggestions for older students with several class sessions include:

Putting the tiny pockets together

A backpack may contain one, two, or three smaller front pockets, depending on the style. Pens, pencils, highlighters, a wallet, phone, and other loose goods should always be kept in the smaller pockets. Put everything little in a container if at all possible. There should be nothing strewn about in the backpack. If your child is prone to misplacing materials, have them carry extra pens and pencils in a little pouch that they can stash in one of the main pockets. That way, it'll be easy to find and they won't have to hunt in the front compartment for hours.

They can also go to the spare pouch at the back if they can't find one quickly in the front compartment. Just remember to restock it as needed. Finally, use the internal hook or hidden lanyard on the bag for house keys, auto keys, school ID, and other items that require a secure location.

Make a checklist for going from home to school and from school back home.

If your child forgets to bring something home or bring it back to school, this is a great solution. The following is how it works: Obtain a luggage tag from a suitcase or purchase one. Just make sure there's enough room inside the plastic enclosure for a checklist. The tag should be labeled "to school" on one side and "to home" on the other. You and your child can decide what should be on the bill, but in general, think about anything they might forget to bring home or return to school.

Every day, your youngster can go over the list quickly and mentally check what they have. It's critical to go over the checklist with your child on a regular basis and make any necessary adjustments. Here are some suggestions on what should go on the checklist:

To school, bring your assignments and textbooks, as well as a binder, folders, and planner, as well as a lunch and a water bottle.

gym attire (if needed)

house phone key (charged)

laptop for school (charged)

To Home

Water bottle and lunch bag to bring home books and homework materials binder, folders, and planner

key to the house

phone, soiled gym clothes, jacket, or other clothing items

laptop for school

Keep it tidy

Even with a system in place to keep things organized, the bag can grow a little cluttered. As needed, consider organizing a cleanup day. Depending on your needs, this could be once a week or once a month. Take everything out of the bag on cleanup day, and deal with any damaged or loose papers that have dropped to the bottom, broken pencils, or other items that need to be removed or dealt with. Items in the backpack that are no longer needed can be removed, and the bag can be washed. This new beginning can help prevent any messy situations from spiraling out of control.

Take a photograph.

Once the backpack is sorted, younger children may benefit from a map or image of the backpack. They'll have a visual of where everything goes when they pack up when they put everything out on cleanup day.

Best backpacks for ADHD children

When purchasing a backpack, keep in mind that simplicity is crucial. Too many pockets, hooks, buckles, and zippers can easily divert your child's attention away from the contents of the bag.

Backpack for Students by JanSport

This bag includes two large main compartments and three smaller front pockets, making it ideal for middle and high school students. There's also a side water bottle compartment and an interior laptop sleeve that fits devices up to 15 inches.

Classic School Backpack from Amazon Basics

This backpack is ideal for primary school students who do not require extensive compartments to hold many textbooks, folders, or notebooks. It has two side water bottle pockets, one main pocket, and one small front zipped pocket.

Original Book Pack by L.L. Bean

This choice is ideal for students in elementary school, middle school, and high school who prefer one large compartment over two. A key clip, organizer panel, and a spot for lunch money or other small items are all included in the front zipped pocket.


Finally, keep in mind that each child is different. It may take some trial and error to figure out what works best to make your youngster feel organized and empowered. It's perfectly acceptable to do what's best for your child's needs.

The Truth About Adult ADHD Medication 

From childhood through adulthood, ADHD is a condition that affects many people.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects two-thirds of children and is likely to persist into adulthood. Adults are more composed, yet they still struggle with organization and impulsivity. Some ADHD drugs intended to treat ADHD in children can help adults manage symptoms that last into adulthood.

Medication for adults with ADHD

ADHD is treated with stimulant and nonstimulant medicines. Stimulants are recommended as the first line of treatment. They aid in the regulation of norepinephrine and dopamine, two chemical messengers in the brain.


Stimulants increase the availability of norepinephrine and dopamine in your brain. This permits you to concentrate more. The major activity is assumed to be caused by norepinephrine, with dopamine acting as a reinforcer. Adult ADHD can be treated with stimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamine derivatives like:


The nonstimulant medication atomoxetine (Strattera) was the first to be licensed for the treatment of ADHD in adults. Because it's a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, it solely works to raise norepinephrine levels

Atomoxetine appears to be less addictive than stimulants, although being less effective. It's still effective and a fantastic alternative to stimulants if you can't take them. It's also convenient because you just have to take it once a day. If necessary, it can be utilized for long-term treatment.

Adult ADHD drugs that aren't approved by the FDA

Antidepressants for adult ADHD have yet to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Some doctors, however, may prescribe antidepressants as an off-label medication for individuals with ADHD who also have other mental illnesses.


Bupropion is also known as Wellbutrin, a brand name for the drug. It raises the level of dopamine, a chemical messenger. It also raises your norepinephrine levels slightly. If you have depression or a nicotine addiction, your doctor may prescribe bupropion to treat your ADHD.

Clonidine with guanfacine

Tenex or Intuniv are the brand names for guanfacine. Catapres is the brand name for clonidine. They aid in the regulation of the portion of your brain that governs your capacity to focus. If you have tics or anxiety, your doctor may prescribe guanfacine or clonidine to treat your ADHD. They both take a long time to complete. Clonidine can help with impulsivity and hyperactivity, but it won't help with inattention. If you have Tourette syndrome, it may be especially beneficial. The sedative impact of guanfacine is smaller than that of clonidine. It lasts longer than clonidine and aids concentration.

Risk factors and side consequences

It's critical to understand the negative effects of any drug you and your doctor choose to treat your ADHD. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist about any medications you've been prescribed. Examine all of the labels and literature.

Stimulants can make you eat less. They can also cause headaches and insomnia.

Examine the antidepressant's packaging. Irritability, anxiety, sleeplessness, and mood swings are all common side effects of these medications.

If you have: Don't use stimulants or atomoxetine if you have:

Complete control of your ADHD

Adult ADHD treatment includes more than just medication. By correctly setting up your environment, you can also initiate serenity and concentrate. You can use computer tools to organize your daily agenda and contacts. Make dedicated storage areas for your keys, wallet, and other valuables.

Cognitive behavioral therapy, often known as talk therapy, can assist you in becoming more organized and developing study, job, and social skills that help you stay focused. A therapist can assist you with time management and impulsive behavior management.

What You Should Know About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Brain Fog 

The ability to think clearly can be harmed by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In reality, ADHD can sometimes make you feel as if you have a fog in your head. Your reaction speed slows as a result of this. Recalling information, processing your thoughts, and finding the appropriate words to communicate what you want to say might be difficult. The connection between ADHD and the condition known as brain fog is explained in this article. It explains how ADHD can damage one's thinking abilities and outlines therapies that can help clear the fog.

What exactly is brain fog?

"Brain fog" isn't a medical or scientific phrase. Sluggish cognitive tempo – a momentary delay in your thinking abilities — is a term used by researchers to describe the feeling. When you have brain fog, you may have symptoms such as:

While fog in the natural world might be soothing and restful, cognitive fog can have the opposite effect. It can make you less productive at school or at work. It can cause issues with communication in your relationships. It can also rapidly lead to frustration and worry, which some people with ADHD are all too familiar with.

Is it possible for ADHD to create brain fog?

Brain fog can occur for a variety of causes.

Aging, severe brain traumas, central nervous system injuries, and even dehydration and standing for too long have all been linked to it, according to research. Lupus, celiac diseaseTrusted Source, chronic fatigue syndrome, and COVID-19Trusted Source are all illnesses that can induce transient mental sluggishness. People with ADHD can also suffer from mental fog. The research on the link between ADHD and that fuzzy sense is as follows.

Symptoms that overlap

ADHD is a condition caused by a variation in how the brain develops during childhood. Although the symptoms can change as you get older, the illness can sometimes linger into adulthood. There are three forms of ADHD, according to doctors at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):

Many of the symptoms of inattentive ADHD are similar to those associated with brain fog. These symptoms include forgetfulness, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty following directions, to name a few.

Sleep disturbances caused by ADHD

Sleep difficulties affect 25 to 55 percentTrusted Source of children with ADHD, and 43 percent of adults with ADHD have trouble sleeping as well. ADHD can make it difficult to fall asleep quickly and keep you awake all night, hurting both the quality and amount of your sleep.

You can't think as clearly when your sleep is disrupted as you can when you're well rested. According to studies, people with ADHD and sleep issues are more likely to:

omission errors in school work difficulty with language, intellectual functioning, and information processing inattention fatigue and daytime sleepiness inattention fatigue and daytime sleepiness inattention fatigue and daytime sleepiness inattention fatigue and daytime sleepiness inattention fatigue and daytime sleepiness

The link between ADHD and sleep difficulties is complicated. ADHD makes it difficult to get adequate restful sleep. In addition, if you don't get enough sleep, your ADHD symptoms may worsen. Because this pattern generates a cycle, it's critical to address both requirements.

Is it possible for ADHD meds to produce brain fog?

Some of the medicines used to treat ADHD symptoms can create brain fog as a side effect. The following are some of the possible adverse effects:

If you're experiencing adverse effects like these, talk to your doctor about adjusting your dose or kind of medication. They'll be able to collaborate with you to establish the best drug balance for you.

It's crucial to see your doctor before making any changes to your therapy, as abruptly quitting some medications can have negative consequences.

Inflammation of the brain and mental fog

the term "brain fog" encompasses many of the symptoms that people experience when their brain or nervous system is inflamed. Inflammation is also a factor in the onset of ADHD. Early exposure to inflammatory pollutants such as cigarette smoke, for example, can raise the risk of ADHD in young children. It's also well known that people with ADHD are more likely to suffer from inflammatory diseases such as asthma and eczema.

The levels of cytokines in the bodies of people with ADHD are frequently greater. These proteins are produced naturally by the immune system, and a high cytokine count indicates inflammation. A rise in cytokines, according to researchers, can:

More research is needed to fully comprehend how ADHD, brain fog, and inflammation interact with one another

What can you do if you have ADHD and are experiencing brain fog?

While there is no cure for ADHD, medication can help to alleviate the hazy feeling. Here are some possibilities to discuss with a medical professional:

Cognitive symptoms respond effectively to treatment in many children and adults. The following medications are used as first-line treatments for ADHD:

Dehydration can exacerbate the symptoms of brain fog. Dehydration harmed memory, attention span, weariness, ability to conduct "mental" activity, and response time in studies. These abilities immediately recovered when study participants drank plenty of water.

You'll want to drink a lot in the morning and afternoon so you don't have to get up in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom People with ADHD should take extra precautions to ensure that they are adequately rested. It is possible to achieve greater results by treating both ADHD and sleep difficulties. Those who learnt about excellent sleep practices had less ADHD symptoms and improved daytime functioning than those who were treated for ADHD without addressing sleep problems, according to one study including 244 youngsters with ADHD. A year later, the advantages were still intact.

You can improve your sleeping conditions by doing the following:

If you suspect you might have a sleep disturbance, talk to your doctor about whether a sleep study would be beneficial. Studies demonstrate that regular exercise enhances thinking ability in persons with ADHD, according to Trusted Source. Executive function, or the set of skills that allow you to recall, plan, focus, and follow directions, is enhanced by physical activity.

Exercise in any kind is helpful. Cardio exercise, such as jogging, biking, or swimming, can help alleviate ADHD brain fog in the near term and have long-term cognitive benefits. According to several studies, youngsters may benefit more from exercise than adults


The word "brain fog" refers to a feeling of mental tiredness and a slowing of your thinking ability. Brain fog affects people's ability to remember and absorb information. They may also exhibit shorter reaction speeds and concentration lapses. Brain fog can be caused by a variety of medical problems, including ADHD. Many of the symptoms of ADHD are similar to those of brain fog. Some of these could be caused by inflammation in the brain. Sleep difficulties caused by ADHD might exacerbate brain fog. Medication can help with some symptoms of brain fog, but some medications can actually make you feel worse. Consult a doctor about which medications would be most effective in treating your symptoms. Drinking plenty of water, resting, and exercising can also help you clear your mind.

What to Know About ADHD and Memory

Adults and children with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) often have trouble focusing. People with ADHD may appear inattentive at times, and they may lose critical information more frequently. This is known as ADHD of the inattentive kind. They may also be more likely to interrupt or engage in disruptive conduct. Hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD is the name for this condition. A combination of these symptoms, termed as mixed hyperactive-impulsive/inattentive type, is the most frequent form of ADHD.

Each of these kinds of ADHD arises from a biological cause connected to brain activity. If you have ADHD, the frontal lobe of your brain, which controls your impulse control, attentiveness, and memory, appears to develop more slowly.

Working memory and ADHD

Working memory refers to the small amount of data that your mind stores while you're completing a task. Consider it the area of your brain where you keep a phone number when dialing it. Working memory stores a small amount of information at a time as you work on finishing a task, "copying" the information from one location and "pasting" it in another before forgetting what it was.

According to a 2020 study, Working memory is impacted in the majority of children with ADHD, according to Trusted Source. According to a 2013 review of research, this effect lasts into adulthood. Because working memory is highly linked to IQ and learning ability, people with ADHD may be unfairly judged in terms of their learning abilities. Without a strong working memory, it's critical to build coping skills and alternate learning processes that don't rely on the brain's working memory.

ADHD may have an effect on how children's brains perceive time. Working memory is linked to time perception. This could also explain why people with ADHD have a harder time getting to destinations on time. In a tiny 2007 study, 40 children with ADHD and 40 children without ADHD were compared in terms of time perception. Children with ADHD had a harder time distinguishing between short, medium, and extended periods of time.

Long-term memory and ADHD

The impact of ADHD on long-term memory and memory decline is less well recognized.

A review of medical literature on adults with ADHD was published in 2013. The scientists came to the conclusion that ADHD is more likely to limit long-term memory capacities. However, according to that scientific review, this limitation stems from learning impairments induced by ADHD, not necessarily from the effects of ADHD on the brain. In other words, according to the research review, children with ADHD have difficulty learning the same long-term memory skills as children without ADHD, which can persist into adulthood without additional coping or compensatory mechanisms.

Memory loss and ADHD

Another area of debate in the ADHD research literature is the link between ADHD and memory loss.

A review of research published in 2017, researchers are divided on whether having ADHD as an adult increases your risk of acquiring dementia or other memory-related cognitive impairments later in life.

ADHD and dementia tend to have similar effects on the brain, making this a complex subject with numerous variables. The overlapping symptoms of ADHD and a kind of dementia known as mild cognitive impairment were explored in the 2017 research reviewTrusted Source above (MCI). The boundary between ADHD and dementia symptoms in adulthood can sometimes be blurred due to the difficulties in determining the actual cause of MCI and ADHD symptoms like forgetfulness occurring more frequently or having problems focusing for lengthy periods of time.

With ADHD, there are a few things you may do to improve your memory. 

Some ADHD-related behaviors can be changed by making lifestyle changes that help you better respond to work and home life rhythms.

These suggestions aren't meant to replace a treatment plan developed with the advice of a doctor or an ADHD specialist, but they can help with behavioral or memory challenges that are interfering with your everyday activities.

How can I address the underlying causes of ADHD-related memory problems?

Medication for ADHD-related behaviors can help you improve your working memory as well. These drugs are designed to help you focus and feel less intimidated when performing daily chores.


ADHD is commonly treated with stimulant medication. Stimulant medicine may assist enhance the connectivity in your frontal cortex with other sections of your brain, which can help with working memory, according to a small 2012 studyTrusted Source.

According to the same tiny 2012 studyTrusted Source above, methylphenidate (Daytrana) and dexmethylphenidate (Focalin) are two medications that have been examined for their effect on working memory.


Another type of ADHD treatment is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

CBT seeks to help you regulate your emotions and behaviors by changing your thought habits. CBT may be able to help you improve time perception and working memory behaviors, such as being on time for events. Goal-setting, task planning, and execution may all benefit from CBT. All of these are linked to your working memory.

The 8 Best Essential Oils for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 

Essential oils are plant oils that have been distilled into a concentrated form. These oils can be extracted from a plant's leaves, petals or blossoms, roots, or stems. They have just recently gained popularity in the United States, but they have been used for thousands of years in other countries. Essential oils are thought to offer healing powers on a physical, emotional, and psychological level.

Essential oils have a number of health benefits for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

There hasn't been enough research done in the medical and scientific communities to fully grasp how and if essential oils can aid people with ADHD. Many others, however, swear by them based on their personal experiences. Before using any type of essential oil, check with your doctor to see if there are any drug interactions. Essential oils should only be used as indicated. Essential oils might have negative side effects when utilized incorrectly.

When used in conjunction with behavioral therapy, essential oils are thought to improve ADHD. Many of the essential oils recommended for ADHD treatment include calming or relaxing properties. This relaxing impact could aid ADHD sufferers in modifying some of their behavioral symptoms. According to one study, the scent of various essential oils has an effect on behavior via the endocrine system or the central nervous system. The characteristics of the oil going through the mucous lining of the nose into the bloodstream may be responsible for this impact. However, further research is needed to properly comprehend the effect.

How to use essential oils for ADHD

Oils can be used in a variety of ways. They can be massaged into the skin after being diluted, or they can be diffused to create a scent (aromatherapy). If you're going to apply an essential oil to your skin, dilute it with a carrier oil like sweet almond or vegetable oil first. Internal use of essential oils is not recommended. Many of them are poisonous.

ADD/ADHD essential oils


Vetiver oil is derived from the vetiver plant, which is native to India. It's supposed to offer a relaxing impact, as well as the ability to promote circulation and relieve stress and anxiety symptoms. Vetiver oil, when used in aromatherapy for relaxation, has anti-anxiety properties similar to the medication diazepam, according to a 2015 animal study. Although vetiver oil has the potential to help with anxiety, there has been little study done to show that it can help with ADHD. A small 2001 study showed that the oil may alleviate ADHD symptoms, but additional research is needed. Vetiver oil is best utilized to relieve the symptoms of tension and anxiety, owing to its relaxing properties.


For hundreds of years, lavender has been used to relieve anxiety. According to one study, the scent of lavender can impact our emotions. Lavender's scent can help people relax and calm down in stressful situations, which may aid with ADHD symptoms. There is, however, no scientific evidence that this oil can directly aid with ADHD. Best used for: Lavender essential oil can help you relax and reduce anxiety, which may help with ADHD symptoms.


The rinds of delicious oranges are used to make orange oil. Orange essential oil was also employed in the same study, and it was found to lower anxiety and create serenity in people who were in a stressful situation. Again, while orange oil may help with anxiety, there isn't enough evidence to support its usage in treating ADHD symptoms. If you use citrus oils on your skin, avoid going out in the sun. Orange oil is great for calming anxiety and assisting in the regulation of emotions in stressful situations.

Ylang ylang with chamomile

The flowers of the chamomile plant are used to make chamomile oil, whereas the blossoms of the tropical Cananga tree are used to make ylang ylang oil. Ylang ylang and chamomile oils may help with the stress, worry, and depression that some people with ADHD experience. Both of these essential oils have the potential to soothe, reduce anxiety, and even help with depression in some cases.

Best for: Chamomile and ylang ylang oils can help control emotions that produce tension, anxiety, and depression, which may be beneficial if you have ADHD symptoms.


The wood and roots of the East Indian sandalwood tree, Santalum album, are used to make sandalwood oil. It has been demonstrated in research that it contains therapeutic characteristics that can aid with inflammation and possibly even cancer. However, some individuals feel it can assist people with ADHD relax, settle down, and increase their mental clarity, however more research is needed to establish this.

Best for: Sandalwood can aid with inflammation and relaxation, which could be beneficial if you have ADHD symptoms.


Frankincense oil is derived from the resin of the Boswellia tree and has a musky, sweet scent. Frankincense has been shown to improve attention and tranquility in people. It may also assist to alleviate some of the negative emotions that people with ADHD are prone to.

Though frankincense oil may aid in relaxation, more research is needed to determine whether it can directly alleviate ADHD symptoms. Frankincense oil is beneficial for focusing as well as relaxation and tranquillity.


Peppermint oil is derived from both the blooming and leaf parts of the peppermint plant. It's thought to provide a calming effect. It can assist in relaxing and calming restlessness. If you have sensitive skin, dilute this essential oil even more than other essential oils by adding more carrier oil or using less essential oil. Peppermint oil may help with some symptoms, such as restlessness, yet additional research is needed to discover whether it can directly lessen ADHD symptoms.

Children with ADHD can benefit from essential oils.

The most common age group for ADHD is children. More research into the use of essential oils in children with ADHD is needed. Essential oils may be more sensitive in children, so proceed with caution. Before using essential oils on your child, consult with his or her doctor.

How should essential oils be used?

Essential oils can be used in the bath, massaged, applied directly to the skin, and diffused. In treating the symptoms of ADHD, the oil is most typically spread into the air and gradually breathed in. You don't need a diffuser to achieve the same effect. A few drops on your pillowcase, for example, can have the same impact as a few drops on your nose.

It's possible that the oil will need to be blended with a carrier oil first. It's vital to keep in mind that if you use essential oils directly to your skin through massage or in a bath, your skin may become horribly inflamed.

Because this irritation may be amplified in children, use topically with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare expert, or avoid using them at all on children.

Adult ADHD Diagnosis: A Guide

ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a neurodevelopmental condition that most commonly manifests in childhood. There are three types of symptoms: mainly hyperactive, predominantly inattentive, and combination. Some people are not diagnosed with the disease until they are adults for a variety of reasons. It can be life-changing to receive a correct diagnosis as an adult. If left untreated, the disorder can have major consequences for one's health, career, and relationships.

How many adults have been diagnosed with ADHD?

According to studies, between 2.58 and 5.76 percent of persons around the world have substantial ADHD symptoms. Some of these individuals have likely missed an early diagnosis, but researchers studying adult ADHD are divided on whether ADHD can develop in maturity or whether all adults with ADHD were merely undetected as children.

Studies provide contradictory evidence. According to some specialists, ADHD might manifest itself for the first time in adulthood. Others claim that when the person was younger, the signs were neglected.

What does adult ADHD look like?

When you're an adult, your symptoms may differ from those associated with ADHD as a youngster. Adult ADHD is frequently associated with:

If any of these symptoms sound familiar, you should consult a doctor for a diagnosis. While there is no cure for ADHD, the appropriate therapy can help you achieve balance in your personal and professional lives.

Is it possible for a general practitioner to diagnose ADHD in adults?

Yes. Any licensed physician, such as a family doctor, internist, or specialist, such as a neurologist or psychiatrist, can diagnose ADHD. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants, like physicians, may diagnose ADHD and prescribe medication to treat it.

Adult ADHD can be diagnosed by licensed mental health professionals like psychologists and therapists, but they'll refer you to a physician, nurse practitioner (in some states), or physician assistant for medication.

Getting a professional diagnosis is a good idea.

An MRI or a blood test aren't enough to diagnose ADHD, whether it's in childhood or maturity. Your diagnosis will instead be made after a thorough examination of your symptoms and medical history.

At least five separate symptoms must be present in order to be diagnosed with ADHD. They must have an impact on you in at least two separate ways (school, work, home, etc.). A behavior rating scale may be used by your healthcare provider to determine how frequently you experience symptoms of adult ADHD in your daily life. The following are some examples of common scales:

Once you've been diagnosed, your healthcare provider may use scales like these to monitor how well your therapies are working from time to time.

Other alternatives

Several different health problems have symptoms with ADHD. Adults with chronic stress, sleep difficulties, and other mental health illnesses including bipolar disorder may appear to have ADHD. As a result, you may require additional testing to rule out other possible reasons of your symptoms. You may also need to take a cognitive abilities test to see whether you have a learning disability that needs to be addressed.

Disparities in adult ADHD diagnosis by gender and sex

Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with ADHD during their childhood.

Some experts believe this is due to the fact that boys are slightly more prone to exhibit hyperactivity and impulsive symptoms. Distraction and inattention, which are slightly more common in girls, are more difficult to detect. It's also possible that girls develop compensatory skills to help them cope with their ADHD symptoms. As a result, many girls with ADHD are not diagnosed until later in life.

Women typically notice their symptoms as adults and seek treatment. ADHD has often produced issues in new social circumstances, higher education, career, or motherhood. Hormone fluctuations might also affect how and when ADHD symptoms appear or worsen. Menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause can all affect ADHD symptoms, making them more evident in terms of productivity and relationships.

For women with ADHD, getting a correct diagnosis is critical since, if left untreated, the illness can lead to:

Self-harming behaviors include sadness, anxiety, and substance abuse.

Adult ADHD diagnosis has racial differences.

ADHD diagnoses in children and adults are influenced by race. Researchers discovered that Black, Hispanic, and Asian children were diagnosed with ADHD less frequently than non-Hispanic white children in a 2021 studyTrusted Source encompassing more than 238,000 children.

Non-Hispanic white children were more likely than Black, Hispanic, or Asian children to be treated with medication if they had an ADHD diagnosis.

These racial divides persist well into adulthood. When researchers from the Trusted Source looked at over 59,000 ADHD cases in a major health insurance cohort in 2019, they discovered that non-Hispanic white persons were diagnosed with ADHD more frequently than Black, Hispanic, and Asian people.

The patients in the 2019 study all had private health insurance, so the disparities weren't due to a lack of healthcare services for some of the participants, according to the researchers. The discrepancies, according to academics, may have existed because:

People have various viewpoints on mental health care.

Due to racial bias, healthcare providers may perceive certain behaviors as "unhealthy" in certain people and "normal" in others. As a result, people may be more or less eager to seek medical help.

Symptoms could be misdiagnosed as another illness.

ADHD diagnoses are on the rise across all racial and ethnic groups in the United States, according to researchers.

Adult ADHD self-assessment alternatives

There are a few quick online tests you may do to see if you have adult ADHD symptoms. Many of the classic ADHD symptoms, such as interrupting others, fidgeting, losing track of your belongings, and feeling overwhelmed by hard activities, are assessed in these tests.

These tests can be eye-opening and serve as a catalyst for seeking help, such as:

proving a diagnosis

Occupational therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and supplementation are all options for managing your symptoms.

Even if you are an expert on your own symptoms, only a professional diagnosis can lead to a medication-based treatment plan. ADHD has a lot of overlap with other mental health issues, so consulting a specialist can help you receive the right diagnosis.

The Unseen Struggles of an ADHD Woman 

Do you image a hyperactive little kid bouncing off the walls when you think of someone with ADHD? Quite a few people do. However, this isn't the complete picture. ADHD manifests itself in the form of a 30-year-old lady firmly seated on the couch.

Women with ADHD face a specific set of symptoms and challenges in addition to dealing with the usual joys of the condition. Understanding them can help you feel less guilty and confused about being a bit sloppy woman in a world that demands perfection.

Here are just a few of the hidden problems of a woman with ADHD, in case you didn't know.

Periods, boobs, and ADHD

Girls with ADHD have an uphill battle from the start. Because the symptoms of ADHD in girls differ from those in males, they are more likely to go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Because boobs, menstrual cycles, and eyeliner aren't enough to throw at a middle schooler, symptoms in girls commonly arise with the onset of puberty.

Unless you're like me and have both, ADHD often manifests itself in women as inattentiveness rather than hyperactivity. As a result, our inattention is typically dismissed as a character weakness rather than a therapeutic problem.

Stupidity at school

Things get really fascinating when girls with ADHD go to college and lose the structure of their parents, curfews, and forced school attendance.

Women with ADHD, for example, are the fast-talking life of the party on the outside, while on the inside, they're having a nervous breakdown about the ever-growing mound of schoolwork they haven't even begun. Have you ever had the horror of being late for an exam in a class you've never attended? That's a nightmare I've had. After all, it turns out that you can't BS your way through an astronomy exam.

It's more of a maniacal pixie nightmare.

Women with ADHD have a bad habit of keeping their problems (and their dishes) hidden, telling no one about the turmoil and anxiety that's steadily taking over their life.

This could be due to the fact that they were never given a correct diagnosis and hence do not have access to the drugs and coping skills that would be beneficial. Even if you're completely aware that you have ADHD, like me, it's all too easy to get caught up in guilt when you've fallen behind on your tasks. And, sadly, when it comes to some things, the world we live in still demands more of women. Are you sure you didn't forget to send that birthday card? Did you lose track of time while your friend required you to pay close attention? THEN YOU ARE A WOMAN WHO HAS FAILED.

In a man's world, a girl's problems

I can't remember a month when I didn't have to figure out whether my anxiety was caused by my ADHD, my ADHD medication, or PMS. The majority of the time, it's all three. Most people with ADHD have difficulties keeping track of their keys and wallets, but it's even more difficult when their garments don't have pockets!

Then there's the frustration of having to explain your diagnosis to people who don't believe you because "Can girls possibly have ADHD?"

Yes, to put it succinctly. Males, on the other hand, are far more likely to be diagnosed, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, and this isn't because there are more boys with the illness. Adults in a girl's life, such as parents and teachers, have been shown to have no idea what to look for or what to do if they do notice symptoms, according to research.

Let's get started on resolving the issue there.

With ADHD, you can have it all.

Despite my difficulties, I consider myself fortunate in comparison to other women with ADHD.

For starters, because I'm a lesbian, I'm not expected to be the primary source of structured feminine energy in my relationships. It's true: society gives me a little more leeway to be a rough-and-tumble tomboy. I also work from home, so I have a more laid-back schedule and can maintain a stress-free jeans and T-shirt look without the weariness of a complicated hair and makeup regimen.

And because I don't have children, I simply have my own schedule to keep care of (and my body to occasionally forget to feed). Straight women with children, makeup, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? You're the true heroes.

If you're a woman with ADHD, the best thing you can do for yourself (apart from medicine and organizing skills) is to take a break. Thank your brain for all it can do, and set reasonable goals for everything else.

Also, don't be embarrassed to brag about your ADHD! We may be grown women with homes, vehicles, and bank accounts, but we have the same right to be distracted as the children.

Is there a link between nutrition and ADHD?

There is no evidence that nutrition plays a role in the development of the behavioral disorder ADHD. However, research suggests that dietary adjustments may help some people improve their symptoms. In reality, a significant amount of study has been done on the effects of nutrition on ADHD.

Nutritional and behavioral factors

The research underpinning the effect of food on behavior is still fairly fresh and contentious. Certain foods, on the other hand, have an effect on behavior. Caffeine, for example, can boost alertness, chocolate can affect mood, and alcohol can alter behavior. Nutritional deficits can have an impact on one's behavior. When compared to a placebo, taking an essential fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral supplement resulted in a significant reduction in antisocial conduct, according to one study . Vitamin and mineral supplements have been demonstrated in studies to lessen antisocial behavior in youngsters, and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to prevent violent conduct .

Because meals and supplements can alter behavior, it's reasonable to assume that they can also affect ADHD symptoms, which are primarily behavioral. As a result, much nutrition research has been done on the effects of foods and supplements on ADHD.

Generally, two types of research have been conducted:

A scientific evaluation of supplement studies

Numerous studies have revealed that children with ADHD do not consume a well-balanced diet and suffer from vitamin shortages. As a result, researchers hypothesized that supplements could help alleviate symptoms. Several supplements have been studied for their benefits on ADHD symptoms, including:

a mixture of amino acids

Supplements containing amino acids

Amino acids are required for the proper functioning of every cell in your body. Amino acids are needed to generate neurotransmitters, or signaling molecules in the brain, among other things. The amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan are particularly important in the production of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

Certain neurotransmitters, as well as low blood and urine levels of these amino acids, have been linked to people with ADHD. As a result, a few studies have looked into how amino acid supplements improve children's ADHD symptoms. Supplementing with tyrosine and s-adenosylmethionine has yielded inconsistent results, with some research revealing no effects and others revealing moderate benefits .

Supplements with vitamins and minerals

Whether or whether a child has ADHD, iron and zinc deficits can cause mental damage .Lower levels of zinc, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus, on the other hand, have been regularly found in children with ADHD. Several studies have looked at the effects of zinc supplements, and they've all shown that they help people feel better. Two further research looked into the impact of iron supplements on ADHD children. They also discovered improvements, although additional research is required. Mega dosages of vitamins B6, B5, B3, and C have also been investigated, but no improvements in ADHD symptoms have been recorded  Despite this, a 2014 trial of a multivitamin and mineral supplement found a positive result. When compared to the placebo group, adults using the supplement exhibited improvement on ADHD rating scales after 8 weeks (49Trusted Source, 50Trusted Source).

Supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids

In the brain, omega-3 fatty acids play a crucial role. Youngsters with ADHD have lower omega-3 fatty acid levels than children without the disorder . Furthermore, the lower the omega-3 levels in children with ADHD, the more learning and behavioral issues they have. As a result, it's not unexpected that omega-3 supplements have been linked to minor improvements in ADHD symptoms in numerous studies .

Omega-3 fatty acids appeared to aid in the completion of tasks and the reduction of inattention. Aggression, restlessness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity were also reduced .

However, not every researcher agrees. According to one review of research utilizing the Connor's rating scale (CRS) to estimate ADHD symptoms, there is insufficient evidence to support the claim that omega-3 supplements enhance ADHD symptoms in children.

A review of research on elimination studies

People with ADHD are more prone to have negative eating reactions, leading to suspicion that avoiding troublesome foods could help alleviate symptoms. Many substances have been studied and the effects of deleting them have been studied, including:

Getting rid of salicylates and other food additives

Dr. Feingold, an allergist, discovered by chance that food might alter behavior. He advised a diet to his patients in the 1970s that excluded particular items that caused them to react. Salicylates, which are substances found in many foods, pharmaceuticals, and food additives, were not allowed in the diet. Some of Feingold's patients reported that their behavioral issues improved while on the diet. Feingold began collecting children diagnosed with hyperactivity for dietary studies soon after. He stated that 30–50% of them improved as a result of the diet.

Many parents praised his work, and the Feingold Association of the United States was founded in his honor. Despite the fact that reviews concluded the Feingold diet was ineffective for hyperactivity, it sparked more research into the effects of food and additive elimination on ADHD. In the treatment of ADHD, some medical professionals strongly advise against using salicylate elimination diets. Nutritional deficits and food aversion in children may be caused by the diet.

Artificial colorants and preservatives are being phased out.

Researchers focused their focus once the Feingold diet was found to be ineffective, focusing on artificial food colors (AFCs) and preservatives. This is due to the fact that these substances appear to alter children's behavior regardless of whether or not they have ADHD . In one study, 800 youngsters who were suspected of being hyperactive were tracked. Seventy-five percent of the participants improved while on an AFC-free diet, but then relapsed when given AFCs again. Another study indicated that when 1,873 youngsters ate AFCs and sodium benzoate, a preservative, their hyperactivity increased .

Despite the fact that these studies show that AFCs can promote hyperactivity, many people argue that the evidence is insufficient. Nonetheless, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates the inclusion of specific AFCs on food labels. A warning label identifying detrimental effects on children's attention and behavior is also required by the European Union (EU) for meals containing AFCs (82, 83Trusted Source, 84Trusted Source).

Sugar and artificial sweeteners are being phased out.

Soft drinks have been related to increased hyperactivity, and those with ADHD often have low blood sugar.  Furthermore, sugar consumption has been linked to ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents in several observational studies. However, a study of sugar and behavior revealed no correlation. The artificial sweetener aspartame was likewise found to have no effect in two studies . Sugar, rather than hyperactivity, is more likely to cause inattention, as blood sugar abnormalities can cause attention levels to decline.

The Diet of Elimination of a Few Foods

The Few Foods Elimination Diet is a technique for determining how persons with ADHD react to certain foods. The following is how it works:

This diet has been evaluated in 12 distinct studies, each lasting 1–5 weeks and involving 21–50 youngsters.

Eleven of the studies indicated a statistically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms in 50–80% of participants, while the other found benefits in 24% of children. The majority of the youngsters who reacted to the diet did so to more than one meal. While each person's reaction was different, cow's milk and wheat were the most common culprits.

It is unknown why this diet works for some youngsters but not for others.

Learn more about Combined Type ADHD

What are the symptoms and indicators of ADD/ADHD of the combined type?

ADHD is most commonly manifested as inattentiveness or hyperactivity-impulsivity. A person with combination type ADHD has six or more symptoms from each category.

Symptoms of Inattentiveness

The following are some examples of inattentiveness symptoms:

Symptoms of Hyperactivity and Impulsivity

The following are the most prevalent signs and symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity:

Six or more of these indicators, as well as six or more signs of inattentiveness, are present in a person with mixed type ADHD.

What is the relationship between ODD and ADHD?

When your child or teen displays a pattern of antagonism to you or another authoritative figure, this is known as opposition defiant disorder (ODD). ODD affects about 40% of children with ADHD. The behaviors could be linked to the ADHD kind of hyperactivity or impulsivity. It could also be a way for youngsters with ADHD to deal with irritation or emotional stress. ODD is typically manifested as a pattern of:

A youngster with ODD may also have an argumentative nature or engage in obnoxious actions on purpose. Behavioral therapy can aid in the treatment of ODD symptoms.

What factors increase your chances of developing mixed type ADHD?


Although the reasons of ADHD are likely to be the same for all types, science has yet to discover one. However, recent research has discovered a number of possible elements that can increase a person's likelihood of getting ADHD. Environmental factors, for example, may play a role.

Factors that are at risk

The following are risk factors for all kinds of ADHD:

ADHD may be passed down down the generations, according to one study.  According to another study published in JAMA Psychiatry, certain genes may increase the risk of developing ADHD. Exposure to pollutants such as lead during infancy or pregnancy may raise a child's risk of developing ADHD. Traumatic brain injury: A tiny percentage of children with traumatic brain injuries develop ADHD.

Pregnant mothers who smoke boost their child's risk of getting ADHD, according to a study published by the Washington University School of MedicineTrusted Source. During pregnancy, drinking alcohol and taking drugs can raise a child's risk of developing the disease.

Premature birth or low birth weight: According to a study published in the journal Pediatrics, babies born before their due date are more likely to develop ADHD later in life.

Boys are more than twice as likely as girls to acquire ADHD, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source.

What to Expect When You Visit Your Doctor

There is no single test that can determine whether or not someone has ADHD. All types of ADHD are diagnosed in the same way by your doctor or clinician. Although there are some differences in the criteria for combination type ADHD. Your doctor will search for six or more symptoms from both inattentiveness and hyperactivity or impulsiveness types if you have mixed type ADHD.

What your doctor is going to do

To rule out other illnesses, the doctor will first conduct a complete medical check. Some diseases, such as learning disabilities and anxiety disorders, might be mistaken for ADHD. Then they'll look for signs connected with ADHD subtypes in your youngster. This could entail keeping an eye on your child throughout the day. Several ADHD rating scales will be completed by both you and your child. These will be used by your doctor to aid in the evaluation or diagnosis.

These scales don't provide a conclusive answer, but they can assist you and your doctor in gaining a better understanding of the wider issue. The questionnaires will inquire about your child's behavior at school, at home, and in other situations. Requesting behavior descriptions from others who interact with your child, such as teachers and other family members, can help you see a larger picture of your child's behavior.

What's the best way to deal with mixed-type ADHD?


ADHD drugs may help your child's symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity improve. They may also aid in the development of physical coordination.

•inability to eat

•sleeping difficulties


•Changes in personality

•Irritability or anxiety

•stomach ache


These medications take longer to function, but they still help with ADHD symptoms. Antidepressants can help with ADHD symptoms in some situations. However, antidepressants have not been licensed as a medication by the Food and Drug Administration


Children, especially those aged 6 to 12, benefit from a combination of therapy and medicine. Research also reveals that behavioral techniques and interventions for children and teenagers with ADHD are quite effective.

What approaches can be used to aid someone who has both ADHD and ADD?

Children's books

The importance of structural assistance for children with ADHD cannot be overstated. A child's symptoms can be managed with organization and regularity. You and your child can do the following together:

If your child has ADHD, you may also help him or her to behave well by doing the following:

Adults only

Adults can gain organization and life management skills by working with a therapist or counselor. These are some of them:

Clear communication is essential for parents and children with ADHD. People with ADHD experience communication issues, according to research, ranging from following directions to considering other people's opinions. When engaging your youngster, it may be beneficial to take the time and leave detailed step-by-step directions. You can also assist them by enhancing their social abilities.

What You Should Know About the Side Effects of ADHD Medications

Medications for ADHD that are currently available

Medications are frequently used in conjunction with behavioral therapy to assist alleviate symptoms. These drugs work by affecting brain chemicals that help you manage your urges and behaviors.

Stimulants and nonstimulants are the two types of ADHD medications.


Stimulants raise the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in your brain, which improves your concentration. These medications include:


Nonstimulants are less commonly recommended for ADHD, but they may be used if stimulants have negative side effects or are ineffective. Certain nonstimulant medications help with focus and attention by increasing norepinephrine and other substances in the brain.

Nonstimulant medications include:

Because everyone reacts to drugs differently, you may need to try a few different ones to find the one that works best for you.

Side effects of ADHD medication

Side effects are always a possibility with medications. Not everyone will have the same — or any — adverse effects. Some side effects fade, while others persist. Discuss the exact adverse effects of the drug you've been prescribed with your doctor, and let them know if you suffer any.

Problems with sleep

Sleep can be disrupted by ADHD medication, especially if it is still active at bedtime. If you're taking a short-acting medicine, it's possible that the second or third dose was given too late in the day and hasn't yet gone off. If you're on a long-acting medicine, consider switching to a shorter-acting one.

Problems with food

Stimulant medicines can also induce food difficulties. Although it may appear that someone isn't eating because they aren't hungry, the stimulant medicine is active and suppresses appetite. Consult your doctor about the best way to take your medication so that it doesn't reduce your appetite.


Stimulant medicine can sometimes trigger tics, or repetitive motions or sounds, in youngsters. If this occurs, a different stimulant medicine may be used to see if the tic is relieved. If the tics persist, non-stimulant medications may be used, as they have a different effect on the brain and are less likely to trigger tics.

Mood swings

A stimulant dose that is too high can result in sedation, irritation, or tears. This can be addressed by adjusting the drug's dosage. Stimulants, in any dosage, can cause mood swings in certain persons. When they stop taking the stimulant, this fades gone.

A different stimulant medication may be helpful in some cases, but in others, a non-stimulant treatment is required to address the mood swings. Other times, combining treatment with an antidepressant can assist with mood swings.

Depression and ADHD are frequently co-occurring disorders, although both can be addressed. Knowing that persons with ADHD have a higher risk of depression might help you manage any mood changes that aren't due to medication.

Nausea and headaches are common side effects.

Headaches and nausea caused by ADHD medication normally subside after a few weeks. Tell your doctor if the nausea and headaches persist. It's possible that they'll ask you to take your prescription with food.

Effects of recursion

When ADHD medicine wears off by the end of the day, a person's symptoms reappear – often more strongly than before. Because the medication is exiting the brain receptors too quickly, this occurs.

A tiny dose of the medicine can be given approximately a half hour before the "rebound" generally begins to counteract this. A "rebound" effect may need adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medicine.

There could be a mood issue or something else at work for some folks. Talk to your doctor about what's going on right now and the various things that could be causing it.

Increased blood pressure and heart rate

If you're on a stimulant prescription, you'll notice a slight increase in blood pressure and pulse. This is usually not clinically significant, although it could be if you have borderline hypertension or heart illness.

Precautions and hazards associated with ADHD medication

Tell your doctor about any other medical conditions you may have before starting any ADHD medication. If you have: Don't take stimulants or atomoxetine if you have:

If you have or have ever had any of the following, tell your doctor.

Knowing your medical history can assist your doctor in selecting the best medication for you

What if you aren't diagnosed with ADHD?

Take these medications only if you've been prescribed them. If you don't have ADHD, using these medicines without a prescription can have serious and perhaps harmful side effects.

Stimulant medicines can be overused, especially by those who don't have ADHD. This is owing to the possibility for lack of appetite and weight loss, as well as the adverse effects of prolonged attention and alertness.

When should you consult your doctor regarding the negative effects of ADHD medication?

Any side effects from your ADHD medication should be reported to your doctor. You may need to test a variety of medications before you find the one that works best for you.

Let your doctor know if side effects don't go gone after they're supposed to. Call your doctor if you start to experience any side effects after being on the drug for a while.

Last but not least

ADHD medicine, like any other type of drug, has the potential for negative side effects. These can differ based on the medication you're taking and how you react to it. If you have any side effects, talk to your doctor. It's possible that you'll have to test a few different drugs before finding the one that works best for you.

Which Is It or Is It Both Dyslexia and ADHD? 

What does it look like to have ADHD and dyslexia at the same time?

Dyslexia and ADHD can coexist. Despite the fact that one disorder does not cause the other, those who have one frequently have the other. Nearly half of children diagnosed with ADHD also have a learning disability such as dyslexia, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

In fact, their symptoms can be very similar at times, making it difficult to determine what's causing the behavior you're observing. ADHD and dyslexia, according to the International Dyslexia Association, can both make persons "dysfluent readers." Parts of what they're reading are left out. When they try to read, they become exhausted, annoyed, and distracted. It's possible that they'll act out or refuse to read.

Despite being highly intelligent and often very talkative, ADHD and dyslexia make it difficult for people to understand what they've read.

When they write, their handwriting may be sloppy, and they frequently have spelling issues. All of this may make it difficult for them to achieve their academic or career goals. As a result, anxiety, low self-esteem, and depression might occur. While the symptoms of ADHD and dyslexia are similar, the two disorders are not the same. They're all diagnosed and treated differently, so it's crucial to know what they're all about.

What is ADD/ADHD?

ADHD is a chronic disorder that makes it difficult for people to concentrate on jobs that require them to be organized, pay close attention, or follow directions. ADHD patients are also physically active to the point that it may be considered improper in some situations.

A kid with ADHD, for example, may yell out responses, wriggle, and disrupt others in class. However, ADHD students aren't always disruptive in class. Some children with ADHD may struggle on long standardized tests or fail to complete long-term assignments. ADHD can manifest itself in a variety of ways depending on the gender.

What Adult ADHD Looks Like

These symptoms can last throughout adulthood because ADHD is a long-term illness. In fact, 60 percent of children with ADHD grow up to be adults with the disorder. Symptoms in adults may not be as clear as they are in children. Adults with ADHD may have difficulty concentrating. They may be forgetful, restless, tired, or unorganized, and they may have difficulty following through on difficult activities.

What exactly is dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a reading impairment that affects various persons in different ways.

Even if you use the word in everyday speech, if you have dyslexia, you may have problems pronouncing words when you see them written down. That could be due to a problem with phonemic awareness, which is when your brain has problems connecting sounds to letters on the page. You may also have difficulty decoding or identifying complete words.

Researchers are learning more about how the brain interprets written language, but dyslexia's exact causes remain unknown. What is known is that reading necessitates the cooperation of numerous brain areas. When people who don't have dyslexia read, particular brain regions activate and interact. When reading, people with dyslexia activate distinct brain areas and employ different neural pathways.

What adult dyslexia looks like

Dyslexia, like ADHD, is a lifelong issue. Adults with dyslexia may have gone undetected in school and may be able to hide the problem at work, but they may still struggle to comprehend paperwork, manuals, and tests that are required for promotions and certifications. They may also struggle with planning and short-term memory.

How can you identify if your reading difficulty is caused by ADHD or dyslexia?

According to the International Dyslexia Association, dyslexic readers frequently mistake words and have difficulty reading effectively. Readers with ADHD, on the other hand, rarely make mistakes. They may lose track of where they are in the document, skipping paragraphs or punctuation marks.

What to do if you or your child suffers from both

Make an early intervention.

If your child has ADHD or dyslexia, you should meet with the entire educational team, which includes teachers, administrators, educational psychologists, counselors, behavior specialists, and reading specialists.

Your child has the right to an education that is tailored to his or her specific requirements. In the United States, this can include things like an individual educational plan (IEP), special testing, classroom accommodations, tutoring, intense reading instruction, behavior programs, and other services that can help students succeed in school.

Consult with a reading interventionist

Studies suggest that if you utilize therapies that target your decoding abilities and knowledge of how sounds are generated, the brain may adapt and your reading ability can increase.

Consider all of your ADHD therapy choices.

Behavior therapy, medication, and parent training, according to the CDCTrusted Source, are all crucial elements of treating children with ADHD.

Both problems should be treated.

According to a 2017 study, both ADHD and reading disorder therapies are required if you want to see progress in both illnesses. There is some evidence that ADHD medications can help people read better by boosting their focus and memory.

Take up the flute or fiddle.

According to Trusted Source, practicing a musical instrument on a daily basis can assist to synchronize regions of the brain impaired by ADHD and dyslexia.

The prognosis

Both ADHD and dyslexia cannot be cured, but they can be treated individually. Dyslexia can be addressed with a variety of reading therapies that focus on decoding and articulation, whereas ADHD can be managed with behavior therapy and medication.

Last but not least

Dyslexia affects a large number of people with ADHD. Because the symptoms — distraction, annoyance, and reading problems — match so much, it's tough to tell them apart.

Because excellent medical, psychological, and educational solutions exist, it's critical to speak with doctors and teachers as soon as feasible. Receiving treatment for these illnesses can have a significant impact on educational outcomes as well as long-term self-esteem in both children and adults.

Patient Assistant Programs Can Help You Save Money on ADHD Treatment

Assistance with prescription costs

Even the generic versions of ADHD drugs may be too pricey if you don't have health insurance. Fortunately, there are cost-cutting options available, like as patient assistance programs and pharmaceutical savings cards.

Programs that help patients

PAPs (prescription assistance programs) are schemes that assist qualified persons in paying for their prescriptions. It's possible that they'll be available for both brand-name and generic drugs.

The websites listed below can assist you in locating PAPs for which you are eligible.

Tool for assisting with medication

The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) launched the Medicine Aid Tool (MAT) to help patients identify financial assistance resources accessible through PAPs sponsored by pharmaceutical firms. You fill out basic personal information as well as the names of the medications you require on the MAT website. The search results display programs and resources that may be of assistance to you.


NeedyMeds is a non-profit PAP resource with a national reach. It keeps track of pharmaceutical company and private PAPs in a database. NeedyMeds saves you time by consolidating information from many websites into one convenient location.


Pharmaceutical companies run RxAssist, a PAP website. RxAssist can identify multiple PAPs that might cover your ADHD prescription instead than searching for them individually.


RxHope is the most comprehensive web-based PAP resource available. You can seek up the prescriptions you need on its website and then give that information to your doctor, who can then fill out an application to see if you qualify for RxHope help.

Programs for prescription discount cards

Some of the free discount prescription medicine card schemes that offer savings on generic and brand-name prescriptions are listed below. You can print the card directly from the website and take it to the pharmacist with you.


If you can't afford your current ADHD medication, talk to your doctor about finding a pill that will address your symptoms without breaking the bank. Regardless of your income, age, or health insurance status, resources are accessible.

Is Marijuana Effective in the Treatment of ADHD? 

Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may use marijuana as a self-treatment (ADHD).

Marijuana proponents argue that the medication can assist persons with ADHD cope with some of the disorder's more severe symptoms. Agitation, impatience, and a lack of restraint are examples. Marijuana, they claim, has less adverse effects than standard ADHD drugs.

Is there any evidence that marijuana can help people with ADHD?

People who claim to use marijuana to treat ADHD symptoms leave comments on online health forums.

Similarly, people who identify as having ADHD report they have few or no additional problems when they consume marijuana. They aren't, however, presenting the studies on adolescent marijuana use. There are concerns about the learning and memory abilities of the developing brain.

According to Jack McCue, MD, FACP, an author, physician, and emeritus professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, "many teenagers and adults with ADHD are convinced that cannabis helps them and has less adverse effects [than ADHD drugs]." "It's possible that they, rather than their doctors, are right."

Dr. McCue says he's encountered patients who claim the typical affects and benefits of marijuana use. For example, they report intoxication (or "high"), appetite stimulation, sleeping or anxiety alleviation, and pain relief. These folks, according to Dr. McCue, sometimes experience side effects that are common with traditional ADHD therapies. "Based on the scant studies on what patients believe cannabis helps for ADHD symptoms, it appears to be most effective for hyperactivity and impulsivity." It may be less effective for inattentiveness, according to Dr. McCue.

In 2016, research was conducted. Some of these online posts or forums were examined by Trusted Source. In the 286 discussions examined by the researchers, 25% of the posts were from people who claimed that cannabis use was medicinal.

Only 8% of posts mentioned negative effects, 5% mentioned both positive and bad effects, and 2% said marijuana had no effect on their ailments. It's vital to keep in mind that these discussion boards and comments aren't therapeutically relevant. They're also not study that is based on evidence. As a result, they should not be regarded as medical advice. Consult your physician beforehand.

According to Elizabeth Evans, MD, psychiatrist and assistant professor of psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center, "there are descriptive accounts and demographic surveys that report that individuals with ADHD describe marijuana as helpful in managing inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity." "While there are clearly individuals who benefit from marijuana or who are not adversely affected by marijuana," Dr. Evans says, "there is not sufficient proof that marijuana is a safe or effective medication to treat ADHD."

CBD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Cannabidiol (CBD) is also touted as a beneficial treatment for ADHD sufferers. CBD is a compound found in both marijuana and hemp. CBD does not include the intoxicating ingredient tetrahydrocannabinol, which is present in marijuana (THC). As a result, CBD does not generate the same "high" as marijuana. Some people advocate CBD as a possible treatment for ADHD. According to Dr. McCue, this is due to CBD's "anti-anxiety, antipsychotic properties."

"The lack of a potential counterintuitive benefit from THC's stimulating effects makes CBD less intriguing conceptually," he argues.

"There are no large-scale clinical trials looking at CBD for ADHD," Dr. Evans says. At this moment, it is not considered an evidence-based treatment for ADHD.

Marijuana's limitations or hazards in the context of ADHD

Marijuana usage may be more common in those with ADHD. They're more likely to start using the substance when they're younger. They're also more prone to develop an addiction to the drug or misuse it. Marijuana can also have negative effects on physical ability, mental capacities, and growth.

Development of the brain and body

Marijuana use for a long period of time can lead to difficulties. These are some of them:

Decision-making and thinking

In addition, frequent cannabis usage in adults with ADHD may exacerbate some of these issues. If you use marijuana, you may notice major changes in your ability to pay attention and make decisions.

Functions of the brain and body

Persons with ADHD who use marijuana perform worse on vocabulary, memory, cognitive, decision-making, and response tests than people who don't use the substance, according to a 2013 study.

The people who started smoking cannabis regularly before they were 16 were the ones who were the most affected.

ADHD and marijuana addiction

People diagnosed between the ages of 7 and 9 were considerably more likely than those without the illness to report cannabis usage within eight years of the initial study interview, according to a 2013 study.

In fact, according to a 2016 study, those who were diagnosed with ADHD as children were three times more likely to use cannabis.

Cannabis addiction is a serious condition.

To make matters worse, those with ADHD are more prone to develop a cannabis use issue (CUD). Cannabis use that causes severe impairment over a 12-month period is characterized as this.

In other words, cannabis usage impairs your capacity to do daily duties, such as those necessary at work.

People who were diagnosed with ADHD as a youngster are 1.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with CUD, according to research. According to a 2016 study, as many as 45 percent of persons seeking treatment for CUD also have ADHD.

Substance abuse is a serious problem.

Cannabis isn't the only drug or substance that persons with ADHD may abuse.

Individuals with ADHD and CUD are 2.8 times more likely than those without either illness to misuse alcohol, according to research.

Marijuana and anti-anxiety drugs

ADHD drugs work by boosting the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain.

ADHD is thought to be caused by a lack of molecules called neurotransmitters. Medications that increase the levels of these substances may help to alleviate symptoms.

However, these medications aren't always effective in treating ADHD symptoms. In addition to medicine, behavioral treatment is frequently employed. Family therapy and anger management therapy may also be used with children.

Side effects are possible with ADHD medications. Weight loss, sleep problems, and irritability are among them. One of the reasons why people with ADHD seek for alternative treatments is because of these negative effects.

"Some patients report cannabis works when other treatments are unsuccessful, uncomfortable, or too expensive," adds Dr. McCue. "I've met a lot of folks who got medical marijuana 'cards' for symptoms that are actually due to untreated ADHD."

"Recent research reveals that ADHD individuals who use cannabis are less likely to require or use conventional pharmacological or counseling treatment," McCue says. As a result, there's no doubt that these patients believe cannabis is more effective than conventional medication in treating their symptoms."

Dr. Evans says it's still unclear how ADHD medications might interact with marijuana if they're used together.

"One issue is that active marijuana usage may reduce these medications' efficacy," she explains. "The first-line treatment for ADHD is stimulant medication. Stimulant drugs can be abused, thus they should be administered with caution if a patient also has a substance misuse problem."

"However, research suggests that, in controlled circumstances, stimulant drugs can be used safely and successfully in patients with substance use problems," Dr. Evans writes.

Can medical marijuana be used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

The brain of a child is still developing. Marijuana use has the potential to have serious consequences.

Long-term marijuana usage, for example, may result in altered brain development and cognitive impairment. However, few research have looked specifically at the effects of marijuana usage in youngsters. Any clinical group does not advocate it. This makes it harder to do research. Instead, the majority of studies focuses on young individuals' usage of the substance and when they first started taking it.

In 2017, one short study was conducted.

The effects of a cannabis medicine on people with ADHD were investigated by Trusted Source. The medication had no effect on the severity of symptoms in those who took it. The findings did, however, reveal that youngsters experience more negative effects than adults.

Marijuana use is not recommended for anybody under the age of 25.

"The hazards appear to be substantially lower for adults than for children and adolescents," Dr. McCue says, "but the statistics are simply not there."

Our Favorite Healthy Finds: ADHD Management Tools

Award-winning journalist and author of "Is it You, Me, or Adult A.D.D.?" shares her favorite healthy finds. Gina Pera is an outspoken supporter of people with ADHD. She tries to dispel myths and stigma around the disease by educating people about it and its consequences. One thing she wants everyone to understand is that there is no such thing as a "ADHD brain." In other words, in today's hectic world, almost everyone might benefit from an extra pair of hands when it comes to managing their time, money, and even relationships. It's just that these techniques are especially beneficial to those with ADHD.

Keeping organized is a difficult task, and those with ADHD may require more assistance than others. Pera reveals her go-to tools for accomplishing this goal.

1. To-do list and calendar

Aside from the apparent benefit of remembering appointments and commitments, using this application on a regular basis aids you in accomplishing two goals:

Writing things down can also make you feel more accomplished because it allows you to visually tick things off your list and see how far you've progressed. Moleskin offers a variety of attractively designed planners. 

2. Pill container on a keychain

Taking medication on time can be difficult for anyone, but it can be practically impossible for someone with ADHD.

While you can set a reminder and keep your meds in the same area to maintain some consistency, you never know when life will throw you a curveball. Always have a supply of medication on hand in case of an emergency. The Cielo pill container is slim, unobtrusive, and extremely convenient. As a result, your medicines will follow you everywhere you go.

3. The command post

A logistical headquarters is required in every residence. Look for ideas on Pinterest that are appropriate for your situation. Set aside a space, preferably close to the entryway, for a:

4.Charging station 

Here's an important component to consider when it comes to command centers. Why spend 30 minutes every morning driving yourself and everyone else in the family insane looking for your phone or laptop, just to be caught with a dead battery?

My spouse, who suffers with ADHD, adores this bamboo-based mini model.

5.'The Pomodoro Technique'

The word "pomodoro" means "tomato" in Italian, although you don't need a round red timer to use this method. Any timer will suffice.

Setting a time restriction is one way to entice yourself out of procrastination and into a task (e.g. 10 minutes toward clearing off your desk). Pick up a copy of the book and learn everything there is to know about this time-saving strategy that is ideal for anyone with ADHD.

6.Jar of Successes

It's easy to become discouraged, especially in the early stages of diagnosis and therapy. Two steps forward, one step back — or even three steps back — can feel like progress.

A setback can depress your mood and self-esteem if you don't have an active strategy in place, and it can lead to a mindset of "why try?" Enter: a proactive method for reversing a downward spiral.

Make a list of accomplishments, big or small, such "A student complimented me for understanding her" or "I finished a paper in record time!" After that, put them in a jar. This is your success jar. Dip in and read as needed later!

How Music Can (Or Cannot) Help You Focus If You Have ADHD

What should you listen to?

Structure, as well as the utilization of rhythm and tempo, are important in music. Because many people with ADHD have trouble keeping track of time and duration, listening to music could help them improve their performance in these areas.

Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, can be increased by listening to music you appreciate. Lower dopamine levels may be connected to certain ADHD symptoms. Some genres of music may be more useful for promoting concentration when it comes to music for ADHD symptoms. Aim for soothing, medium-tempo music with simple rhythms.

Consider listening to classical composers like:

White noise may also be benefic

The term "white noise" refers to a constant background noise. Consider the noise made by a loud fan or piece of machinery. While loud or unexpected sounds might interrupt focus, some people with ADHD may benefit from continuous quiet sound.

According to a study published in 2007, The cognitive performance of youngsters with and without ADHD was studied by Trusted Source. According to the findings, listening to white noise helped youngsters with ADHD perform better on memory and linguistic tasks. When listening to white noise, those without ADHD did not perform as well.

In a 2016 study, the benefits of white noise were compared to stimulant treatment for ADHD. A group of 40 children listened to white noise at an intensity of 80 dB. That's about the same degree of loudness as average city traffic. White noise appeared to improve memory task performance in both children with ADHD who were taking stimulant medication and those who were not.

Although this was a pilot study rather than a randomized control trial (which is more reliable), the findings suggest that utilizing white noise as a treatment for some ADHD symptoms, either alone or in combination with medication, could be a potential topic for additional investigation. Turn on a fan or use a white noise machine if you have problems concentrating in utter silence. You can also use a free white noise app like A Soft Murmur to help you relax.

Binaural beats are the same way.

Binaural beats are a sort of auditory beat stimulation that some people feel has a variety of potential benefits, including greater concentration and calmness. A binaural beat occurs when one ear hears a sound at one frequency and the other ear hears a sound at a different but similar frequency. The difference in frequency between the two tones causes your brain to make a sound.

In 2010, a modest pilot study was conducted. The results of a Trusted Source study of 20 youngsters with ADHD were promising. The researchers wanted to see if listening to audio with binaural beats a few times a week could help people pay attention better than listening to audio without them.

While the findings suggest that binaural beats had no effect on inattention, participants in both groups reported having fewer issues finishing their homework owing to inattention throughout the course of the three weeks of the study.

There is a scarcity of research on binaural beats, specifically their use to alleviate ADHD symptoms. However, many people with ADHD have stated that listening to binaural beats improves their concentration and focus. If you're interested, they might be worth a go.

What you should not pay attention to

While certain types of music and sounds may aid attention in some people, others may have the opposite impact. If you're looking to boost your focus when studying or working on a subject, avoid the following to see better results:

If at all possible, avoid streaming services or radio stations with a lot of ads.

You can try your local library if you don't have access to any commercial-free streaming stations. You can borrow a huge library of classical and instrumental music on CD from several libraries.

Maintaining a realistic outlook

People with ADHD, in general, have an easier time focusing when they aren't distracted by anything, including music. Furthermore, according to a 2014 meta-analysis of available studies on the impact of music on ADHD symptoms, music appears to be only modestly useful.

If listening to music or other noise simply serves to distract you, it may be more advantageous to invest in a nice pair of earplugs.

What's the Difference Between ADHD and Schizophrenia?

ADHD and schizophrenia symptoms

ADHD Signs and Symptoms

A lack of attention to details is one of the symptoms of ADHD. This can make you appear unorganized and incapable of completing activities. Other signs and symptoms include:

Schizophrenia symptoms

Schizophrenia symptoms must last for at least six months. They could consist of the following:

Causes and risk factors


ADHD is caused by a variety of factors that are unknown. The following are some possible causes:


Schizophrenia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

Having a first-degree relative with schizophrenia is the most significant risk factor. A parent, brother, or sister is considered a first-degree relative. Schizophrenia affects 10% of persons who have a first-degree relative with the illness.

If you have an identical twin who also has schizophrenia, you have a 50 percent risk of developing it.

How are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia diagnosed?

A single lab or physical test will not be able to diagnose either illness.

ADHD is a long-term condition that is frequently diagnosed in children. It's possible that it'll last until maturity. To arrive at a diagnosis, your doctor will examine your symptoms as well as your daily functioning abilities.

Your doctor may find it challenging to diagnose schizophrenia. Males and females in their 20s and 30s are more likely to be diagnosed.

Your doctor will examine all of your symptoms over time and may take into account evidence provided by a family member. They'll also take into account information shared by school teachers when it's suitable. Before making a final diagnosis, they'll rule out alternative possibilities for your symptoms, such as other psychiatric disorders or medical conditions that could produce comparable problems.

What are the treatment options for ADHD and schizophrenia?

ADHD and schizophrenia are incurable conditions. You can control your symptoms with treatment. Therapy and medication may be used to treat ADHD. Antipsychotic medicines and treatment may be used to treat schizophrenia.

Coping with the aftermath of a diagnosis

How to Deal with ADHD

Follow these strategies to help you control your symptoms if you have ADHD:

Managing schizophrenia

Follow these guidelines to help you control your symptoms if you have schizophrenia:

What is the prognosis?

Medications, therapy, and changes to your daily routines can help you manage your ADHD symptoms. Managing your symptoms can assist you in leading a more fulfilled life.

Receiving a schizophrenia diagnosis can have a significant influence on your life, but with treatment, you can live a full and long life with this disease. After you've been diagnosed, look for additional support networks to assist you deal. For further educational information and support, contact your local National Alliance on Mental Illness office. The toll-free number is 800-950-NAMI (800-950-6264).

How ADHD and Alcohol Are Related, as Well as Interactions and Risk Factors

There are potential associations between alcohol usage and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, according to research (ADHD). ADHD patients may be more inclined to binge drink or begin drinking early. Although not everyone with ADHD will abuse alcohol, they are at a higher risk of having an alcohol use problem. Continue reading to learn about the effects of alcohol on persons with ADHD, as well as how it interacts with ADHD medications and other risk factors.

Risk factors for ADHD and alcohol

While ADHD does not cause alcohol abuse in any way, it has long been known as a risk factor. Some of the recognized links between alcohol use and ADHD are as follows:

Medications for ADHD and alcohol

Alcohol may interact with your ADHD medication, depending on the type of medicine you're on.


Stimulants, such as Ritalin and Adderall, are among the most widely given ADHD medications. They work by enhancing the activity of the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand, alcohol reduces CNS function.

Instead of canceling off the stimulant's effects, drinking alters the way your body absorbs it. As a result, there may be more adverse effects, such as:

You're more likely to get alcohol poisoning and overdose if you use both substances. Both medications can strain your heart over time, raising your chances of a heart attack or stroke.


Atomoxetine (Strattera) is a nonstimulant medicine for ADHD. While it's not commonly used to treat ADHD, it may be safer when used in conjunction with alcohol. A review of the literature published in 2015 . The only recorded negative effect among heavy drinkers who also took atomoxetine for ADHD, according to Trusted Source, was nausea. The drug's makers, however, advise against mixing it with alcohol.

Other considerations

When it comes to how your body reacts to alcohol while on ADHD medication, there are a lot of other aspects to consider. Some of these considerations include the dose and whether your drug is short-acting or long-acting.

When using ADHD medication, you should avoid consuming alcohol — especially heavy drinking — in general. With that stated, a drink now and then may be OK.

If you're worried about how drinking might effect your ADHD medication, talk to your doctor.

Alcohol and depression

The link between alcohol consumption, depression, and ADHD is complicated. While none of these three illnesses cause the others, they are linked. People with ADHD are more likely to drink and suffer from depression. In addition, drinking alcohol has been linked to depression.

According to a longitudinal research published in 2019, people with ADHD are more likely to experience sadness and binge drinking at the same time. Some people drink to cope with the effects of ADHD or despair. Others may overindulge in alcohol and develop more severe ADHD symptoms as a result. As a result, they could get despondent.

Alcohol alters brain chemistry in both circumstances. It can increase your risk of depression and make your ADHD symptoms worse.

For persons with ADHD or depression, binge drinking can quickly become a vicious cycle. You may feel worried, unhappy, or guilty the next day after bingeing. You might be restless or have trouble concentrating. To cope with those sentiments, it's tempting to drink more. To get relief, you may need to drink more and more over time. Meanwhile, the negative consequences of drinking grow increasingly harder to bear.

ADHD and addiction

People with ADHD may use a variety of substances in addition to alcohol. ADHD is also linked to substance abuse, misuse, and dependency, according to a 2017 study. This link has to do with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and emotional dysfunction, which are all prominent signs of ADHD. All three of these symptoms are linked to substance abuse, putting people with ADHD at a higher risk of becoming addicted.

When a person is diagnosed with both alcohol use disorder and ADHD, treatment must address both the addiction and the ADHD. This normally necessitates a period of sobriety, often known as detoxification. Later on, your doctor may give ADHD drugs, such as long-acting stimulants or nonstimulants, to help you avoid becoming addicted.

When to see a doctor

If you have ADHD, you should discuss your alcohol and substance usage with your doctor. Your doctor can assist you in making decisions that can lower your risk of substance abuse. In addition, if you or a loved one exhibits any of the following signs or symptoms of alcohol or substance abuse, you should seek medical help:

9 Must-Have Smartphone Apps for Traveling with ADHD

The most effective planning apps


The free version is sufficient for me. TripIt gathers your itineraries from your e-mail confirmations (or you may forward them to a TripIt email account) and merges them into a pleasant itinerary automatically (yes, automatically!). It will also keep track of your expenses for flights, train tickets, and lodging, as well as when you paid for them. It also retrieves any reservation booking or confirmation numbers.

It can also import public transit details or walking directions (although I just use Google Maps for that) (but I just use Google Maps for that). You may allow travel partners to add details, or people back home (like my mom), so they know where you’re staying and you don’t have to be fumbling around for your flight number when that inevitable text comes in asking for it. (See also the On the Road section for FlightAware.)

Choose your favorite airline app.

Because I can easily sneak a physical boarding pass into my passport, I normally print one at the airport. However, downloading an airline-specific app allows you to receive airline warnings before heading to the airport. For things like gate changes or delays, this can be a useful source of information. This way, you'll know if you have time to meander gently around the terminal or if you have time to pick up some pricey food.


I owe my friend Kat, with whom I'm going from St. Louis to Philadelphia, $84.70 for my half of a hotel room, a train ticket, and a D.C. metro pass. I immediately paid for the train ticket, but due to Splitwise, I'll be able to repay the remaining of my debt to her by ordering deep dish pizza and vegetarian cheesesteaks (and maybe some cash).

TripAdvisor and Yelp are two popular review sites.

Trip Advisor and Yelp are my go-to resources for arranging trips to new destinations where I won't be hanging out with locals. Both applications are useful for finding local attractions, restaurants, and general information about the area. I also enjoy using Trip Advisor's travel map tool to track my travels.

Google Flights

Are you looking for the best timings and prices on numerous airlines at the same time? Come to a halt right now! If you don't find it straight away, email it to yourself so you can find it later. However, keep in mind that the pricing may have changed after you emailed yourself, and be conscious of the company's time zone. Because it was the next day in EST and yet 11 p.m. in CST, a flight's price changed by $100 by waiting just 10 minutes.


"I don't need a list," you might remark. I used to say something similar. Learn from my "oops" moments, such as leaving my deodorant at home on a school band trip (which was later discovered in my laundry basket) and missing my hairbrush (which I was coaching my blind athletes on that trip, so they told me my hair looked fine!). Packing is lot faster and less stressful when you have a list. I've actually gone there and done that. Learn from my mistakes and pack with a list.

Because I don't like to pack with paper (because I'd lose the pen), here are some of my favorite applications. When I write about packing lists and ADHD, I always include this critical caveat: UNTIL IT IS PACKED, NOTHING IS CHECKED OFF. Is it in the same room as the suitcase? This item is not checked off. On the vanity in the bathroom? NO. ARE THEY IN THE BAG OR ARE THEY PHYSICALLY ATTACHED TO IT? Yes.

The finest packing apps

Itinerary (iOS)

Not to be confused with the above-mentioned TripIt! I've tested every major free packing list available, and TripList comes out on top. I even paid for the upgrade to Pro (which has been very worthwhile). TripList not only enables you create a packing list with custom products, but it also has a variety of categories (leisure, camping, conference, business, and so on) that will suggest items to pack if you upgrade to the Pro feature ($4.99 USD). Pro will also provide you with a weather forecast to help you plan your packing and advise quantities of products you may require for your excursion (which has, on many occasions for me, prevented over-packing without under-packing.) The option to store lists is one of my favorite features. I go away virtually every weekend in the summer, so “Weekend Away” is a nice list to have auto-populate, but I also have ones for “Conference” and “Goalball Tournament.” TripList also syncs with TripIt, which is a nice feature.

The % packed feature in TripIt for ADHDers is one of my favorites—as you check off tasks, the circle graphic on the app's homepage clicks around to show you how much work remains. It's quite motivating, at least for me.


Another wonderful free packing list software, I used PackPoint alternately with TripList for a few years, until I decided to devote my loyalty to TripList. It's also a fantastic packing software with many of the same features as TripIt, and it's really worth checking out. TripList's visual appeal won out over Pack Point's, so bear in mind that it's a strong contender available for both iOS and Android.

It's also worth noting that you may utilize these applications backwards by "un-checking" checked things before leaving the hotel or somewhere else to ensure you have everything. (I typically don't and merely conduct a room check, but you're wiser than me!)

On the road

Some apps are only useful after you've arrived at your desired location. Here are some of my favorite items to take with me on the road.

Google Maps is a mapping service provided by Google.

This is without a doubt my favorite map app. If you use Google maps and Google calendar, I highly recommend using the Add to Calendar tool with public transportation—it simply makes those pre-planned trip details easier to find. Also keep in mind that if you're using Google Maps from a different time zone, the times will be automatically adjusted for you (which can be confusing). If you're going to utilize Google maps for this purpose, make sure the local transit system is supported before you go. If you're using Google Maps or another similar software to get directions, be aware that it could consume your battery or data. An offline map app, like the famous Maps. To prevent at least the latter, I might be a good candidate.

The finest travel applications for a variety of purposes

Last year, I flew in once and connected twice in Minneapolis-St. Paul airport. I was fortunate enough to have an iMessage conversation with a coworker who could answer all of my questions. If you don't have a "personal airport concierge," it's worth checking out the app for the airport you'll be visiting, as it may contain helpful advice for parking, public transportation, locating gates and restaurants, as well as maps to get you to your destination faster. For when you're traveling, here are some of my favorite random apps.


FlightAware features a unique "meeting the flight" option for individuals pre-flight and still on the ground that assures those meeting a flight are warned if there is a delay or cancellation. You can also sign individuals up for e-mail alerts, so if my mother is picking me up from the airport, I can enter her e-mail or phone number and have her confirm her subscription. It relieves a lot of the technical stress.

App of your choosing for major attractions.

Sometimes these are problematic, sometimes useful. Last spring, I tried the Mall of America app, which made me feel less lost when strolling around a massive mall by myself for four hours. Investigate these before you travel, so that you don’t waste time when you notice the enormous signs once you get there!

Uber or Lyft are two options for transportation.

If you, like me, don't have Uber or Lyft at home, installing and setting up these apps before you go can help you get from point A to point B quickly and easily. (I frequently check Google Maps while riding in an Uber or cab to make sure we're going in the proper direction!) When you enable your "location" setting, it will be easier for your driver to locate you when you're in a new area.