Five or more of the symptoms mentioned below must be present over the same two-week time period that represents changes in functioning, according to the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).
DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Depression
To determine a diagnosis of depression, the DSM-5 provides the following criteria. During the same 2-week period, the person must have five or more symptoms, with at least one of them being either (1) sad mood or (2) lack of interest or pleasure.
Almost every day, I'm in a depressed mood for the majority of the day.
All, or nearly all, activities have a markedly lessened interest or enjoyment for the majority of the day, almost every day.
Significant weight loss or gain, or a decrease or rise in appetite virtually every day when not dieting.
A diminution in physical movement and a slowing of cognition (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).
Almost every day, I experience fatigue or a loss of energy.
Almost every day, I have feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt.
Almost every day, you'll notice a decrease in your ability to think or focus, as well as indecisiveness.
Suicidal ideation without a particular plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plot to commit suicide.
These symptoms must cause the individual clinically substantial distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other relevant areas of functioning in order to be diagnosed as depression. The symptoms must not be caused by drug or alcohol addiction or any medical issue.
DSM-5 Adds New Depression Specifiers
The DSM-5, the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), included two new specifiers to help disorders be further classified:
With Mixed Features — This specifier permits patients who do not satisfy the entire criteria for a manic episode to have manic symptoms as part of their depression diagnosis.
When You're in Anxious Distress – Patients' anxiety levels may influence their prognosis, treatment options, and how they respond to them. Clinicians must determine whether the person suffering from depression is also experiencing anxiety distress.