7 types of ADHD
The following is a synopsis of Amen's seven categories of ADD, as well as his therapy recommendations.
1. ADD in its most basic form
Inattentive, distracted, hyperactive, disorganized, and impulsive are some of the symptoms. At rest, brain activity is normal; during concentrated tasks, brain activity is reduced.
Cause: Dopamine deficit; reduced blood flow in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia, which aids in the production of dopamine.
Treatment: Stimulant drugs like Ritalin, Adderall, Vyvance, or Concerta, as well as stimulating substances like rhodiola, green tea, ginseng, and the amino acid L-tyrosine, which is a dopamine building block; increased physical activity; fish oil with more EPA than DHA.
2. ADD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)
Short attention span, easily distracted, unorganized, procrastinates, daydreams, and is introverted; not hyperactive or impulsive; affects girls equally as much as boys.
Low activity in the prefrontal cortex due to dopamine insufficiency.
Treatment includes stimulant drugs like Adderall, Vyvance, or Concerta, as well as stimulating supplements like the amino acid L-tyrosine; a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet; and regular exercise.
3. ADD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Symptoms: Classic ADD symptoms add difficulty changing attention, going from thought to thought or task to task, and becoming entrenched in negative thought patterns or actions.
Cause: Deficiencies in dopamine and serotonin; excessive activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus, making flexibility difficult.
Supplements such as L-tryptophan, 5-HTP (a dietary supplement used as an antidepressant), saffron, and inositol (a naturally occurring nutrient used to boost alertness, focus, mood, and mental clarity); otherwise, antidepressants such as Effexor, Pristique, or Cymbalta; avoid a high-protein diet, which may trigger mean behavior. Neurofeedback.
4. ADD in the Temporal Lobe
Symptoms: Classic ADD symptoms, as well as learning, memory, and behavioral issues like rage, aggression, and moderate paranoia.
Cause: Temporal lobe abnormalities; prefrontal brain activity is reduced.
Treatment: GABA (gamma-aminobutryic acid) to regulate neural activity and prevent nerve cells from firing sporadically; magnesium for anxiety and agitation; anti-convulsant drugs for mood stability; gingko or vinpocetine for learning and memory issues.
Limbic ADD is number five.
Moodiness, low energy, frequent feelings of powerlessness or excessive guilt, and chronic low self-esteem are all signs of Classic ADD, as well as persistent low-level sorrow (not depression).
Cause: Increased activity in the limbic system (the mood control center); decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex, whether concentrating on a task or at rest.
Treatment includes DL-phenylalanine (DLPA), L-tryosine, and SAMe (s-adenosyl-methionine) supplements, as well as antidepressants such as Wellbutrin or Imipramine, exercise, fish oil, and dietary changes.
6. Ring of Fire ADD (sometimes known as "ADD plus")
Symptoms include sensitivity to noise, light, and touch, as well as times of rude, nasty behavior, unpredictability, speaking quickly, and worry and panic.
A ring of hyperactivity surrounding the brain is the cause (the entire brain is overactive, with too much activity across the cerebral cortex and other areas).
Treatment: Stimulants by themselves may aggravate symptoms. Start by going on an elimination diet. If an allergy is suspected, supplements such as GABA, 5-HTP, and L-tyrosine, as well as medicine, are used to enhance neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin. Anticonvulsants and the blood pressure meds guanfacine and clonidine, which calm overall hyperactivity, are the first medications to try.
7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (ADD)
Symptoms: Anxiety and tenseness, as well as physical stress symptoms such as headaches and stomachaches, forecasting the worst, and freezing in anxiety-provoking situations, especially while being judged, are all core symptoms of Classic ADD.
High activity in the basil ganglia is the cause (the opposite of most types of ADD, where there is low activity).
Relaxation and a rise in dopamine and GABA levels are recommended as treatments. When used alone, ADD stimulants cause patients to become more nervous. Start with L-theanine, relora, magnesium, and holy basil, as well as other "calming" vitamins. Depending on the person, tricyclic antidepressants like imipramine or desipramine can help with anxiety. Neurofeedback can help with anxiety symptoms by calming the prefrontal cortex.