Acetaminophen autism ADHD
Unborn children exposed to acetaminophen were 19% more likely to be on the autistic spectrum and 21% more likely to have indicators of ADHD, according to the study. The researchers said, "The most consistent pattern of results was obtained for the link between prenatal acetaminophen exposure and ADHD symptoms."
Although previous research has found a link between procrastination and ADHD, Scott pointed out three flaws in that research.
Previous research failed to recruit a representative sample of people with ADHD, and they had any diagnostic information to back up their findings. Scott's research built on this by collaborating with a campus-based center to enroll people who had a certified diagnosis of ADHD.
Previous studies utilized a definition of procrastination that was not backed up by actual evidence. He employed a far more relevant theory and assessment of academic procrastination in the current study.
Although it is obvious that academic procrastination and ADHD are linked to executive functioning (EF) issues, previous research has failed to include an EF measure when looking into the relationship between the two.
Scott covered three research questions and hypotheses in all. Each is summarized below.
Procrastination and ADHD Subtypes
For starters, Scott discovered that people with ADHD procrastinate a lot when working on academic activities, which is unsurprising. Inattention and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo were the most important symptoms related with ADHD in this relationship (SCT). Attention deficits, lack of persistence, distractibility, and disorganization are all symptoms of inattention. Frequent daydreaming, an easy inclination to become confused, sluggish-lethargic conduct, and poor memory retrieval are all signs of a sluggish cognitive pace. Problem solving, self-organization, and self-initiation are common difficulties for people with SCT. In fact, SCT symptoms can identify a significant subset of individuals who are frequently labeled with ADHD's inattentive presentation but do not exhibit hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, speech, or attention issues.
Based on these findings, Scott advises that individuals with ADHD should focus on inattention and SCT in order to improve academic performance and reduce procrastination. He'll keep looking into these in particular.
Procrastination and Executive Functioning Deficits
Second, Scott discovered that executive function (EF) characteristics of self-motivation and time management were linked to higher degrees of procrastination. To my knowledge, this was the first study to look into the relationship between EF and procrastination in ADHD patients. These connections may serve as the foundation for a new ADHD classification system in the future (a possible topic for a later blog post). Most significantly, researchers, clinicians, and educators now have at least one study that provides light on the precise parts of EF (i.e., self-motivation and time management) that are linked to academic impairment and procrastination in ADHD patients. (We'll go through strategies for improving these executive functions later in this piece.)
Procrastination in ADHD Patients and Non-ADHD Patients
Third, while it is evident that both ADHD symptoms and EF deficiencies are linked to increased procrastination in people with ADHD, it is still unclear if people with ADHD have considerably higher procrastination levels. Scott generated a procrastination intensity/severity score to identify people with "severe" or "chronic" procrastination issues, which was an interesting element of his research. He discovered that 35 percent of those without ADHD were "chronic procrastinators" based on this score. In contrast, he discovered that 75 percent of people with ADHD are "chronic procrastinators." Procrastination is a common issue among people with ADHD.
Final Thoughts & Possible ADHD Treatment Strategies
Until now, it was unclear whether various ADHD symptoms and EF deficiencies are associated with procrastination differently among people with ADHD. These new findings may serve as a springboard for future study, group and class interventions, and the identification of positive and negative contextual elements that may help people avoid procrastinating. Academic performance will be crucial for people with ADHD since it can lead to increased success, confidence, drive, and well-being.
Self-motivation and time management are essential executive functions to address because they are linked to procrastination in people with ADHD. With that in mind, I'll leave you with a few recommendations based on research and Scott's own experience.
Self-monitoring is a strategy in which a person establishes goals for task completion and correctness, monitors those goals, and rewards themselves when they are met. According to research, these strategies can help people with ADHD improve their academic performance, especially when used in conjunction with stimulant medication (Raggi & Chronis, 2006).
Strategy training entails teaching and transmitting a certain ability to individuals so that they can use it to improve their academic performance in a classroom setting. Similar to self-reinforcement, strategy training relieves parents and teachers of part of the stress by giving students more responsibility and ownership (Evans, Pelham, & Grudberd, 1995). Individuals with ADHD, for example, could be taught a specific skill, such as time management, to use in academic settings.
An people with ADHD must have the confidence to adopt effective tactics, avoid distractions, complete schoolwork, and participate in class learning in order for these strategies to be successful. As a result, strategies to improve executive functions should be delivered in tandem with efforts to increase students' confidence in their ability to succeed in school (Rabin, Fogel, & Nutter-Upham., 2011).